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Table 1 Management of Grade III Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) [15]

From: Cervical stenosis in a professional rugby league football player: a case report

• Soft collars should not be used as they do not adequately immobilise the spine

• Narcotic analgesics may occasionally be needed for pain relief. Psychopharmacologic drugs and muscle relaxants should not be used

• In the few cases in which rest for the neck might be indicated, it should be limited to less than four days and followed by early activation

• The Task Force consensus is that manipulative treatments by trained persons for the relief of pain and facilitating early mobility can be used in WAD

• Long term repeated manipulation or physiotherapy without multidisciplinary evaluation is not justified

• Surgery for WAD patients is rarely indicated. Surgery is only indicated for Grade III patients with progressive neurologic deficit or persisting arm pain