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Table 1 Individual modifiable risk factors associated with low back pain

From: Low back pain risk factors in a large rural Australian Aboriginal community. An opportunity for managing co-morbidities?

  Factors strongly associated with LBP (OR > 1.2-) Factors moderately associated with LBP (OR ≥ 1–1.2-)
Lack of fitness/Physical inactivity Balague, 1999 [44]*
Feuerstein, 1999[45] ****
 
Smoking Balague, 1999[44] *
Feldmann, 1999[47] ***
Levangie, 1999[48] ***
Power, 2001[49] **
Leboeuf-Yde, 1995[46] *
Obesity Koda, 1991[50] ****
Alcouffe, 1999[51] ****
Walker, 1999[52] **
Fransen, 2002[53] ****
Webb, 2003[55] ****
Leboeuf-Yde, 1999[46] *
Balague, 1999[44] *
Levangie, 1999[48] ****
Lecerf, 2003[54] ****
Mirtz, 2005[56] **
Psychosocial stress Balague, 1995[57] ***
Hagg, 1997[58] ****
Josephson, 1998[60] ****
Adams, 1999[61] ***
Krause, 1998[62] ***
Feuerstein, 1999[45] ****
Bildt, 2000[63] ***
Thorbjornsson, 2000[64] ***
Vingard, 2000[65] ****
Yip, 2001[66] ****
Power, 2001[67] **
Harkness, 2003[68] ***
Van den Heuvel, 2004[69] ***
Balague, 1999[44] *
Hoogendorm, 2000[59] ***
Physical trauma Harkness, 2003[68] ***
Balague, 1999[44] *
 
  Factors strongly associated with LBP (OR > 1.2-) Factors moderately associated with LBP (OR > 1–1.2-)
Awkward posture (at work) Koda, 1991[50] ****
Alcouffe, 1999[51] ****
Jin, 2000[53] **
Picavet, 2000[70] ***
Frequent bending and twisting Alcouffe, 1999[51] ****
Hoogendoorm, 2000[59] ***
Vingard, 2000[65] ****
Jin, 2000[71] **
Van den Heuvel, 2004[69] ***
Picavet, 2000[70] ***
Heavy lifting, repetitive lifting Suadicani, 1994[72] ****
Marras, 1995[73] ****
Magnusson, 1996[74] ****
Sturmer, 1997[75] ****
Krause, 1998[62] ***
Josephson, 1998[60] ****
Alcouffe, 1999[51] ****
Thorbjornsson, 2000[64] ***
Vingard, 2000[65] ****
Hartvigsen, 2001[76] ***
Nahit, 2001[77] ****
Fransen, 2002[53] ****
Harkness, 2003[68] ***
 
Jarring, Gripping, vibration, repetitive actions Bongers, 1993[78] *
Magnusson, 1996[74] ****
Levangie, 1999[48] ***
Pope, 1999[79] ***
Jin, 2000[71] *
 
Prolonged sitting & prolonged standing Burdorf, 1994[80] ****
Bongers, 1993[78] **
Thorbjornsson, 2000[64] ***
Hartvigsen, 2000[81] ***
  1. NB: Only first authors included.
  2. Legend: + OR: Odds ratio
  3. Level I evidence *, Level II evidence **, Level III evidence ***, Level IV evidence****
  4. • Level I – based on studies such as meta-analyses or systematic reviews of all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs);
  5. • Level II – based on well-designed RCTs;
  6. • Level III – based on well-designed prospective or case-control analytical studies; and
  7. • Level IV – based on opinions of respected authorities, clinical experience, descriptive studies and case reports or reports of expert committees.