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Table 1 Table of results for back pain papers.

From: Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

Author Reference Design N/Np Main Results
Hurwitz 5 Random sample of chiropractors from 6 sites 185/131 (70%) 68% of charts documented care for LBP; SMT was documented in 83% of charts. Chiropractic use rate has doubled in the past 15 years.
Shekelle 6 Analysis of insurance claims forms from 6 sites 5279 Visit rate for chiropractic was 41 per 100 person-years and rate of use of 7.5%
Cote 8 Mail survey 2184/1131 (55%) People seeking care for back pain have worse health care status than those who do not.
Kelner 9 Interviews 300 87% of chiropractic patients sought care for LBP, with 77% believing their health care problem was serious in nature.
Walker 10 Mail survey 1768/1913 (69.1%) 55.5% of respondents with LBP in past 6 months did not seek care for it. Increased care seeking was associated with greater pain and disability, fear of pain impacting future activities, and female sex.
Sherman 11 Telephone interviews 249 Chiropractic was used the highest percentage of patients (54%); chiropractic patients had the highest rate of treatment-related discomfort of all groups.
Caswell 12 Self-reporting questionnaires 150 36% of the conventional therapy group had used at least 1 CAM therapy, while 62 of people in the CAM group had used conventional care. The higher the sociodemographic group, the likelier you were to use CAM.
Sundararajan 13 Prospective cohort study 1580 Factors associated with seeing multiple providers included presence of sciatica, higher Roland-Morris score, days to functional recovery and duration of pain prior to first visit.
Scheumier 14 Retrospective/prospective observational study 194 retrospective;
344 prospective
There was a substantial shift of referrals to manipulation practitioners under the scheme. Prospective patients had fewer referrals to secondary care, less drug use, and fewer certififed sickness days. Chiropractors used more x-ray than other practitioners.
Jamison 15 Mail survey 820/230 (27%) Referral for visceral conditions met with little support; referral for LBP with frequent support
Leboeuf-Yde 16 Patient interviews by chiropractors 96/66 (66%) 82% of patients sought care for LBP; few sought care for visceral problems; most patients had short-term problems.
Cherkin 17 Random sample survey Acu: 217/133 (61%)
Chiro: 205/130 (63%)
MT: 226/126 (56%)
Naturo:170/99 (58%)
For chiropractic: woman made up 60% of visits; children 4%; older folks 20%; African American and Hispanic <10%; 80% of visits were by self referral; DCs provided equal amounts of chronic and acute care; back symptoms most common reason for seeking care.
Feuerstein 19 Analysis of National Medical Expenditure Studies   Percentage of people receiving chiropractic care was lower in 1997 compared to 1987, while percent of those receiving physical therapy grew.
Mayer 22 Mail survey 450/158 (35%) ~75% of chiropractors use 6 or more exercises for treating patients with LBP
Whitman 23 Interviews 131 There was a significant interaction between time and specialty certification status, but this disappeared on regression analysis.
Smith 24 Claims data analysis 9314 care episodes Total payments within and across episodes were much greater for medically initiated episodes compared to chiropractic ones.