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Table 2 Table of results for utilization papers.

From: Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

Author Ref Design N/Np Main Results
Simpson 26 Mail survey 1509/784 (52%) 52% response rate. Referral rates varied depending on type of practitioner being referred to: 95% of respondents would refer to a PT, but only 14% would refer to a chiropractor. Respondents did not feel chiropractors should have primary contact status.
McCann 28 Analysis of Medical Expenditure Survey Data 25096 Chiropractic comprised 6% of all office-based health care visits; chiropractors accounted for 14% of all non-physician office-based expenditures.
Sharma 29 Prospective longitudinal non-randomized practice-based observational study 1414 Patients who self referred to DCs were likely to be older and have higher incomes than those who self referred to MDs; those who expected to self-pay more were more likely to self refer to the DC.
Jain 30 Mail survey 1680/601 (36%) Response rate 35.8%; Variables that predicted disuse of CAM included male sex, good health, lack of physician support for CAM, and belief that CAM is not effective. For chiropractic, presence of perceived side effects was a major reason for disuse.
Pirotta 31 Mail survey 800/488 (64%) Less acceptance for chiropractic compared to acupuncture, hypnosis and meditation. 75% felt chiropractic was sometimes harmful, but 29% would refer to a DC.
Astin 32 Review 25 surveys Chiropractic had second highest rate of physician referral (40% behind massage (43%). 53% believed in the efficacy of chiropractic.
Goldszmidt 34    58% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Verhoef 35    83% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Perkin 36    34% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Andersson 37    50% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Wharton 38    51% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Marshall 39    2% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Hadley 40    27% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Reilly 41    20% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Berman 42    56% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Borkan 43    15% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Cherkin 44    57% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Goldstein 45    51% MD referral rate to chiropractors
Hawk 46 Mail survey 1896/563 (30%) 68% believe chiropractic is a therapeutic modality; 82% believe it is complete system.
Berman 47 Conference survey 180/295 (61%) 70–90% consider complementary medical procedures as legitimate.
Smith 48 Mail survey 1877/815 (43%) Chiropractors offer a substantial amount of care to those in underserved populations.
Eisenberg 49 Telephone survey 1991: 1539
1997: 2055
CAM use grew from 33.8% to 42.1%, but chiropractic grew only from 10.1% to 11%. Mean number of visits fell from 12.6 to 8.9.
Eisenberg 50 Telephone survey 2055/831 (40%) 70% of patients saw a medical doctor before seeing a CAM provider; 15% saw a CAM provider before seeing an MD.60% did not disclose their CAM use to their MD.
Kessler 51 Telephone survey 2055/831 (40%) 30% of pre-baby boom group had used CAM; 50% of the boom group had used CAM; 70% of the post-baby boom group had used CAM.