Skip to main content


Figure 10 | Chiropractic & Osteopathy

Figure 10

From: Common errors and clinical guidelines for manual muscle testing: "the arm test" and other inaccurate procedures

Figure 10

Synergist substitution can be identified and prevented during the MMT. With a weak gluteus maximus, the examiner can visualize a lifting of the pelvis with external rotation and abduction of the hip, with recruitment of the ipsilateral hamstring, thoracolumbar extensors, and contralateral leg flexor muscles. The pelvis externally rotates because the weak gluteus maximus recruits synergists to facilitate its action during the MMT.

Back to article page