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Table 2 Definitions of Hill's Criteria

From: An epidemiological examination of the subluxation construct using Hill's criteria of causation

  Criteria Definition
1 Strength The size of the risk as measured by appropriate tests.
2 Consistency The association is consistent when results are replicated in studies in different settings using different methods.
3 Specificity When a single putative cause produces a specific effect.
4 Temporal sequence Exposure always precedes the outcome.
5 Dose response An increasing level of exposure (in amount and/or time) increases the risk.
6 Experimental evidence The condition can be altered (prevented or ameliorated) by an appropriate experimental regimen
7 Biologic plausibility The association agrees with currently accepted understanding of pathobiological processes.
8 Coherence The association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge.
9 Analogy A finding of analogous associations between similar factors and similar diseases.