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Table 6 Cross-tabulations of base-line variables vs. good outcome at the 4th visit for 731 chiropractic patients treated for low back pain

From: The Nordic Subpopulation Research Programme: prediction of treatment outcome in patients with low back pain treated by chiropractors - does the psychological profile matter?

Variables Subgroups P-value
Demographic background and life-style variables   
Age *Max. 40 yrs vs. older 0.1
Sex *Men vs. women 0.1
Type of work *Sitting vs. walking/standing vs. mixed hard/light work vs. hard physically hard work 0.6
Smoking *No never vs. stopped/sometimes vs. daily 0.7
Smokeless tobacco *No vs. yes 0.3
Treatment reimbursed *Not or some reimbursement vs. total reimbursement 0.000
Description of low back pain   
Leg pain *No vs. yes 0.02
Pain intensity past 24 hrs *None/weak vs. moderate vs. severe/unbearable 1.0
Duration of pain at base-line *1-7 days vs. 8-14 days vs. >14 days 0.000
Total duration of pain past year *Max. 30 days vs. >30 days 0.000
Pain in other parts of spine past year *No vs. yes max. 30 days vs. yes >30 days 0.09
General health *Very good/good vs. OK vs. rather bad/very bad 0.02
Psychological profile   
Anxiety **No vs. borderline vs. yes 0.0007
Depression **No vs. borderline vs. yes 0.0001
Cognitive anxiety ***Continuous data 0.02
Escape avoidance ***Continuous data 1.0
Fearful thoughts ***Continuous data 0.008
Physiological symptoms and Signs of pain ***Continuous data 0.005
  1. P-values smaller than 0.05 have been written in bold and the corresponding variables have been included in further multivariate analyses
  2. * Chi-square test
  3. **Logistic regression
  4. *** Test for trend