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Table 3 Adjusted Odds Ratios for high volume vs. lower volume chiropractic use

From: A longitudinal study of chiropractic use among older adults in the United States

  High Volume Use (> 12 visits per CY)
  AOR (95% CIs) Reference Category
Demographic Factors   
Age 0.953 (0.905-1.003)  
Male 0.742 (0.426-1.294) Female
Race   
African American 0.813 (0.164-4.035) White
Hispanic 0.329 (0.044-2.472) White
Other > 999.99 (< 0.001- > 999.99) White
Marital Status   
Never Married 1.182 (0.263-5.311) Married
Separated/Divorced 0.700 (0.149-3.298) Married
Widowed 1.421 (0.791-2.555) Married
Socioeconomic Factors   
Educational Attainment   
Grade School 1.115 (0.551-2.256) Some High School
High School 0.516 (0.282-0.943) Some High School
Some College 0.556 (0.290-1.067) Some High School
Income Distribution   
Income - First Quintile 0.588 (0.185-1.870) Fifth Quintile
Income - Second Quintile 0.780 (0.386-1.578) Fifth Quintile
Income - Third Quintile 0.934 (0.452-1.931) Fifth Quintile
Income - Fourth Quintile 0.789 (0.443-1.405) Fifth Quintile
One or More Health Insurance Policy 1.752 (0.837-3.665) Zero Additional Health Policies
Working for Pay 0.978 (0.488-1.958)  
Able to Drive a Car 0.866 (0.416-1.800)  
Geographic Location Measures   
Northeast 0.654 (0.157-2.735) MidWest Region
New York/New Jersey 1.594 (0.562-4.520) MidWest Region
Mid-Atlantic 1.650 (0.546-4.982) MidWest Region
Southeast 0.790 (0.296-2.107) MidWest Region
North-Central 1.903 (0.844-4.290) MidWest Region
South-West 1.153 (0.402-3.308) MidWest Region
Mountain 0.539 (0.051-5.698) MidWest Region
West 1.818 (0.639-5.169) MidWest Region
Pacific-Northwest 0.651 (0.170-2.491) MidWest Region
Rural 1.232 (0.691-2.196)  
Distance to Chiropractic College - Far 1.612 (0.953-2.725) Near (< 150 miles)
Disease History and Comorbidity   
Zero Comorbid Conditions 1.613 (0.674-3.863) One Comorbid Condition
Two Comorbid Conditions 0.568 (0.240-1.346) One Comorbid Condition
Three or More Comorbid Conditions 0.854 (0.182-4.011) One Comorbid Condition
Arthritis Ever 2.488 (1.097-5.645)  
Cancer Ever 1.007 (0.392-2.582)  
Heart Condition Ever 0.906 (0.388-2.117)  
Diabetes Now 0.976 (0.369-2.584)  
Lung Disease Ever 0.790 (0.264-2.366)  
Psych Problems Ever 1.510 (0.532-4.290)  
Hip Fracture Ever 0.613 (0.126-2.975)  
Hypertension Ever 1.202 (0.513-2.818)  
Functional Status   
Bothered by Pain Often 0.835 (0.506-1.380)  
Difficulty Picking Up a Dime 2.389 (1.080-5.281)  
Difficulty Lifting 10 Pounds 0.843 (0.466-1.595)  
Difficulty Pushing/Pulling Large Object 1.321 (0.743-2.347)  
Difficulty Climbing Flight of Stairs 0.987 (0.512-1.902)  
Difficulty Walking Several Blocks 1.057 (0.575-1.944)  
Number of ADLs with Difficulty 0.817 (0.491-1.357)  
Number of IADLs with Difficulty 0.532 (0.255-1.112)  
Depressive Symptoms - One or Two 0.865 (0.529-1.414) No Depressive Symptoms
Depressive Symptoms - Three or More 1.009 (0.498-2.043) No Depressive Symptoms
TICS 7 Score - Zero to Ten 0.834 (0.428-1.627) Eleven to Thirteen TICS 7 Score
TICS 7 Score - Fourteen to Fifteen 1.112 (0.697-1.773) Eleven to Thirteen TICS 7 Score
Health Lifestyles   
Never Smoked 0.802 (0.498-1.292) Current or Former Smoker
Ever Drink Alcohol 0.860 (0.542-1.363) Never Drink Alcohol
Obese Weight (BMI ≥ 30) 0.698 (0.340-1.432) Normal Weight
Over Weight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) 0.888 (0.555-1.421) Normal Weight
Under Weight (BMI < 18.5) 0.851 (0.131-5.584) Normal Weight
Self-Rated Health   
Excellent 0.932 (0.335-2.597) Poor Self-Rated Health
Very Good 1.117 (0.442-2.822) Poor Self-Rated Health
Good 1.240 (0.515-2.986) Poor Self-Rated Health
Fair 1.131 (0.479-2.672) Poor Self-Rated Health
Utilization of Health Services in Prior 12 months   
Number of Hospitalizations 1.172 (0.726-1.893)  
Number of Physician Visits - One or Less 1.567 (0.987-2.488) Two to Three Physician Visits
Number of Physician Visits - Four to Six 1.107 (0.711-1.726) Two to Three Physician Visits
Number of Physician Visits - Seven or More 1.556 (0.918-2.636) Two to Three Physician Visits
Supply of Physicians per 1000 - County level 1.024 (0.880-1.192)  
  1. Note: Physician visit counts are in response to the question of how many visits to medical doctors the individual had made. Significant predictors at the 5% level are shown in bold face italics.