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Table 1 Types of control interventions

From: Systematic review of clinical trials of cervical manipulation: control group procedures and pain outcomes

Intervention type Multiple session studies Single session studies
Placebo: drug only 1 0
Placebo: non-manual therapy 1 1
Placebo: drug + sham manual therapy 1 0
Manual thrust at alternate site (randomly different [30], contralateral [32], ineffective site [33]) 1 2
Manual contact: no thrust 2 10
Low level manual therapy 1 0
Low level non-manual therapy only 0 0
Low level manual + non-manual therapy 1 0
Waiting list 1 0
  1. Figures add up to 22 due to use of 2 control groups in [Pikula]