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Table 3 The critical components of an informed culture [15]

From: Creating European guidelines for Chiropractic Incident Reporting and Learning Systems (CIRLS): relevance and structure

A reporting culture creating an organisational climate in which individuals are prepared to report beneficial outcomes as well as adverse events or errors.
A just culture not total absence of blame or disregard of individual responsibility, but an atmosphere of trust in which individuals are encouraged to provide safety related information.
A flexible culture the skills and abilities of the individual are respected.
A learning culture there is willingness and competence to draw the appropriate conclusions from its safety information systems, and the will to implement reforms where their need is indicated.