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Table 5 Characteristics of Successful Reporting Systems[9]*

From: Creating European guidelines for Chiropractic Incident Reporting and Learning Systems (CIRLS): relevance and structure

Non-punitive Reporters are free from fear of retaliation against themselves or punishment of others as a result of reporting.
Confidential The identities of the patient, reporter, and institution are never revealed.
Independent The reporting system is independent of any authority with power to punish the reporter or the organization.
Expert analysis Reports are evaluated by experts who understand the clinical circumstances and are trained to recognize underlying system causes
Timely Reports are analyzed promptly and recommendations are rapidly disseminated to those who need to know especially when serious hazards are identified.
System-oriented Recommendations focus on changes in systems, processes, or products, rather than being targeted at individual performance.
Responsive The agency that receives reports is capable of disseminating recommendations. Participating organizations commit to implementing recommendations whenever possible.
  1. *Reproduced with permission of WHO Press