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Table 3 Important Osteoporosis Risk Factors [104, 105]

From: Diagnostic imaging for spinal disorders in the elderly: a narrative review

Major risk factors Minor risk factors
Vertebral compression fracture Rheumatoid arthritis
Fragility fracture after age 40 Past history of hyperthyroidism
Family history of osteoporotic fracture Chronic anticonvulsant therapy
Systemic glucocorticoids >3 months Low dietary calcium intake
Malabsorption syndrome Smoking
Primary hyperparathyroidism Excessive alcohol intake
Propensity to fall Excessive caffeine intake
Osteopenia apparent on x-ray film Weight <57 kg
Hypogonadism Weight loss >10 % of weight at age 25
Early menopause (before age 45) Long term heparin therapy