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Table 6 Radiation Dose and Estimated Cancer Risk Associated with Selected Spine Imaging Studies [87, 100102]

From: Diagnostic imaging for spinal disorders in the elderly: a narrative review

       Estimated Cancer Risk
Imaging Modality Region Study Relative Radiation Level* Estimated Effective Dose (mSv) Equivalent # of chest x-rays Risk coefficient (X10-4) Risk Ratio
Radiography
  Chest PA view Minimal 0.02 1 0.01 1 in 1,000,000
   Lat view Minimal 0.02 1 0.01 1 in 1,000,000
  Cervical AP view Minimal 0.12 6 0.06 1 in 180,000
   Lat view Minimal 0.02 1 0.01 1 in 1,000,000
  Lumbar AP view Medium 2.2 110 1.1 1 in 9,000
   Lat view Medium 1.5 75 0.75 1 in 10,500
CT
  Thoracic Whole T-spine High 10 500 5.5 1 in 1,800
  Lumbar Whole L-spine Medium 5.6 280 3.1 1 in 3,200
Tc-99 m bone scan
   Whole body Medium 3.5 175 1.9 1 in 5,200
FDG-PET
   Whole Body Medium 7 350 3.8 1 in 2,500
Bone density
  QCT L-spine Minimal 0.1 5 0.05 1 in 200,000
  DXA L-spine Minimal 0.005 0.25 0.025 1 in 4,000,000
MRI
    None 0 0 0 0
Ultrasound
  Abdominal Aorta None 0 0 0 0
  1. * Relative Radiation Level: 0 mSv = None; <0.1-1 mSv = Minimal; 1–10 mSv = Medium; 10–100 = High.