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Table 1 Baseline demographics of participants by treatment group and total

From: A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

Variable Exercise (n = 22) NET (n = 20) SMT (n = 15) Total (n = 57)
  Mean (SD) or n (%) Mean (SD) or n (%) Mean (SD) or n (%) Mean (SD) or n (%)
Age, years 28.7 (5.1) 29.7 (5.5) 31.1 (4.2) 29.7 (5.0)
Race/ethnicity     
White 17 (77.3%) 17 (65.0%) 10 (66.7%) 44 (77.2%)
Black 0 0 2 (13.3%) 2 (3.5%)
Asian 1 (4.5%) 0 1 (6.7%) 2 (3.5%)
Hispanic 4 (18.2%) 3 (15.0%) 2 (13.3%) 9 (15.8%)
Education     
High School or Less 5 (22.7%) 2 (10.0%) 2 (13.3%) 9 (16.3%)
Some College or Tech/Trade School 7 (31.8%) 9 (45.0%) 5 (33.3%) 21 (36.8%)
4 Year College 6 (27.3%) 2 (10.0%) 6 (40.0%) 14 (24.6%)
Graduate School 4 (18.2%) 7 (35.0%) 2 (7.4%) 13 (22.8%)
Married 13 (59.1%) 17 (85.0%) 11 (73.3%) 41 (71.9%)
Work During Pregnancy 15 (68.2%) 17 (85.0%) 12 (80.0%) 44 (77.2%)
  1. *SMT = Spinal Manipulative Therapy, ^NET = Neuro Emotional Technique, +PT = Physical Therapy.