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Table 2 Baseline health characteristics of participants by treatment group and total

From: A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

Variable Exercise (n = 22) NET (n = 20) SMT (n = 15) Total (n = 57)
  Mean (SD) or n (%) Mean (SD) or n (%) Mean (SD) or n (%) Mean (SD) or n (%)
Gravida 3* (1.8) 2* (2.3) 3* (2.7) 3* (1.9)
Para 0* (1.2) 1* (1.3) 1* (0.9) 1* (1.1)
Body Mass Index at study start 26.9 (3.9) 28.2 (4.4) 29.3 (4.4) 27.9 (4.3)
Took Medication for Pain at Study Start 4 (18.2%) 2 (10.0%) 1 (6.7%) 7 (12.3%)
Very Good or Quite Good Health Prior to Pregnancy 18 (81.8%) 20 (100.0%) 15 (100.0%) 53 (93%)
Exercised Prior to Pregnancy     
Daily 4 (18.2%) 5 (25.0%) 2 (13.3%) 11 (19.3%)
Weekly 9 (40.9%) 8 (40.0%) 7 (46.7%) 24 (42.1%)
Occasional 6 (27.3%) 6 (30.0%) 6 (40.0%) 18 (31.6%)
Never 3 (13.6%) 1 (5.0%) 0 4 (7.0%)
History of low back pain 10 (45%) 13 (65%) 8 (53%) 31 (54%)
Gestational age at onset of this episode 11.7 (6.1) 13.9 (6.6) 16.1 (5.8) 25.4 (6.4)
Sick Leave due to PRLBP 5 (33%) 4 (24%) 2 (17%) 11 (25%)
Pain Location     
Lumbosacral 10 (45.5%) 12 (60.0%) 7 (46.7%) 29 (50.9%)
Pelvis 6 (27.3%) 4 (20.0%) 2 (13.3%) 12 (21.0%)
Lumbar 3 (13.6%) 3 (15.0%) 2 (13.3%) 8 (14.0%)
Composite 3 (13.6%) 1 (5.0%) 2 (13.3%) 6 (10.5%)
  1. *Median.