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Table 5 Numeric pain rating scale within-group continuous and categorical comparisons for pre- and post-intervention

From: A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

  Continuous data Categorical data
  Baseline Endpoint 2+ Point improve 30% Improve 50% Improve
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)    
Exercise (n = 22) 3.9 (1.5) 2.4 (1.8) 55% 64% 55%
NET (n = 20) 3.2 (1.4) 2.4 (1.6) 35% 45% 35%
SMT (n = 15) 3.5 (1.1) 1.9 (1.7) 60% 67% 53%
  1. * Significance of raw score change using a repeated-measures t-test.