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Table 1 Descriptive check-list of selected articles in the literature review of the action of SMT on ROM

From: The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion: a systematic literature review

Author year and references Design Type of study sample n° of subjects n° males n° females Ages Type and area of symptoms (if any) Duration of symptoms Treatment and control activity (sham, other or nothing) N° experiments When was ROM measured? Was SMT performed at level of problem? What was measured? How was ROM measured? Approval from ethics committee?
Cassidy 1992[36] RCT Patients 100 ? ? 34.5 SD13.0 Unilateral neck pain with radiation to trapezius <1week n=16 1w - 6m=34 >6 months n=50 - SMT (cervical, clinically determined) (n=52) - Mobilization (cervical) (n=48) 1 Before and 5’ after Yes Cervical ROM, 3 planes Goniometer 3 D Yes
Pollard 1997[48] RCT Chiropractic students 34 ? ? 21-33 None N/A - Sacroiliac manipulation (n=18) - Sham=Mastoid pressure (n=16) 1 Before and 30” after N/A Straight leg raise on SMT side Digital goniometer Yes
Goodsell 2000[45] Cross-over Patients 26 13 13 (16–69) 39.5 Low back pain 0.5 – 60 months - Clinically determined lumbar mobilization - Nothing (lying down) 2 Before and after Yes Lumbar motion (extension/flexion) Fingertips-to-floor Inclinometer ?
Whittingham 2001[40] Cross-over Volunteers obtained through adverts 105 42 63 Group=39.4 Group2=41.9 Cervicogenic headache occipital region > 6 months - SMT upper cervical - Sham (deactivated instrument) 3 Before and after weeks 3, 6, 9 Yes Lateral flexion, rotation Strap-on head goniometer Yes
Martinez Segura 2006[37] RCT Patients referred to physiotherapy to osteopathic clinic 70 25 45 (20–55) 37 Neck pain >1Month - SMT (C3-C5) - Sham neck mobilization 1 Before and 3’ after Yes Cervical ROM, 3 planes Goniometer Yes
Konstantinou 2007[46] Cross-over Patients referred for physiotherapy suitable for SMT 26 15 11 >18 38.3 SD11.7 Low back pain +/− Leg pain >3 months - PA mobilization - Nothing 2 Before and 5’ after Yes Lumbar flexion/extension Double inclinometer Yes
Tuttle 2008[41] Cross-over Volunteer staff and students from university 20 10 10 (19–55) 31 Neck pain that limited movement >2 weeks - PA cervical mobilization at symptom level - Placebo (PA mobilization but asymptomatic side) - Nothing (lying down) - general MT but no high velocity thrust 4 Before and after Yes Cervical ROM 3 planes Post/ant assessment device and head sensor Yes
Krauss 2008[42] RCT Patients referred for physical therapy 32 6 26 (19–50) 34.2 Neck pain ? - Thoracic SMT - Nothing 2 Before and after No (thoracic adjustment) Active ROM - Left/right rotation Inclinometer compass system Yes
Kanlayanaphotporn 2009[43] RCT Patients 60 24 36 Goup1 39.7 Goup2 44.8 Neck pain Mean Goup1 804d Goup2 999d -Clinically determined mobilization - Random mobilization 1 Before and 5’ after Yes Cervical ROM, 3 planes Magnetic neck brace + 3 inclinometers Yes
Mansilla-Ferragut 2009[34] RCT Volunteers obtained through advert 37 - 37 (21–50) 35+/−8 Neck pain < 40 mm mouth opening >6 months - SMT atlanto-occipital - Sham (cervical manual contact) 1 Before and after Yes (atlanto-occipital) Mouth opening Universal caliper Yes
Mc Clatchie 2009[38] Cross-over Orthopedic patients 21 7 14 49.8 (+/−9.8) Shoulder pain No neck pain last year >6 weeks - Mobilization (C5- C7) - Sham (same mobilization position but without external force) 2 Before and after Yes Cervical ROM, 3 planes Goniometer Yes
Passemore 2010[39] RCT Volunteer chiropractic students with C1-C2 fixation 15 ? ? 21-42 N/A N/A - SMT(C1-C2) - Nothing (wait 5’) 1 Before and 5’ after N/A Cervical ROM, 3 planes Goniometer Yes
Kanlayana-photporn 2010[44] RCT Patients 60 18 42 42.2 (23–68) Neck pain Mean Group1 1575d Group2 1811d - Post/ant (PA) cervical mobilization - random mobilization (PA, right or left) 1 Before and after Yes Cervical ROM 3 planes Magnetic neck brace + 3 inclinometers Yes
Oliveira Campello 2010[35] RCT Volunteer students 122 31 91 18-30 N/A N/A - SMT atlanto-occipital - Soft occipital tissue treatment - Nothing 1 Before and 2’ after N/A Mouth opening Universal caliper Yes
Stamospapastomous 2011[47] Cross-over study Volunteer students 32 16 16 25.5 SD4.5 N/A N/A - SMT(lumbar) - Mobilization (lumbar) 2 Before and after N/A Bending stiffness and ROM lumbar extension/flexion Electromagnetic tracking device Yes