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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Does back and neck pain become more common as you get older? A systematic literature review



Original observational studies or reports; primarily cross-sectional and cohort studies

If more than one article presenting results from the same study exist then only the most pertinent article was included.

Studies reporting results specifically for various age groups on people aged 60 and over

No reviews, experimental or clinical trials, or studies with subsample of the original study sample, unless it is still a representative sample and reports new relevant information

Representative of the general population (study samples from nursing homes, etc. are accepted)

No working populations

Reported separately some type of back pain (+ divided by region)

No native/aboriginal populations

Studies from developed countries only (e.g. countries with *advanced economies* according to IMF)

No traumatic related injuries

Any type of prevalence

No secondary back pain conditions (i.e. osteoporotic fractures)

Prevalence/incidence estimates specifically on people aged 60 and over

No indirect/weighted/adjusted prevalence estimates.

In studies with results from more than one period/survey, only the most recent year was included


At least theoretically possible that there were a minimum of 500 participants in each age group