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Table 1 Descriptive items used in a systematic critical literature review on the effect of SMT on pain

From: The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

Reference Year Authors Title Location Setting n° of subjects n° males n° females Ages Treatment groups How was pain produced How was pain measured When was pain measured Description of study subjects Approval ethics committee
[37] 2011 Josue Fernández-Carnero, Joshua A. Cleland and Roy La Touche Arbizu Examination of motor and hypoalgesic effects of cervical vs thoracic spine manipulation in patients with lateral epicondyalgia: a clinical trial. Spain University 18? 8 9 44.8 SD, 9.2 (30–60) - Cervical manipulation Pressure Electronic digital algometer Before and after Faculty of the Health Science Yes
- Thoracic manipulation
[42] 2011 V. Maduro de Camargo, F. Alburquerque-Sendín, F. Bérzin, Vinicius Cobos Stefanelli, D. P. Rodrigues de Souza and C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Immediate effects on electromyographic activity and pressure pain thresholds after a cervical manipulation in mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. Brazil University 37 21 16 18 – 42 - SMT C5-C6 Pressure Analogue algometer Before and after University workers Yes
- Control
[23] 2011 Mark D. Bishop, Jason M. Beneciuk, Steven Z. George; Immediate reduction in temporal sensory summation after thoracic spinal manipulation. USA University 90 24 66 22.9 + −2.7 - SMT T° and pressure Algometer Before and Immediately after Students No
- Cervical exercises
- Control
[28] 2010 Benjamin Soon, Annina B. Schmid, Elias J. Fridriksson, Elizabeth Gresslos, Philip Cheong and Anthony Wright; A crossover study on the effect of cervical mobilization on motor function and pressure pain threshold in pain-free individuals. Australia University 24 13 11 34 +/−12 - Mobilization Pressure Digital algometer Before and after Students Yes
- Manual contact control
- Control
[29] 2010 Oliveira-Campelo NM, Rubens-Rebelatto J, Martín-Vallejo FJ, Alburquerque-Sendí N F, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C. The immediate effects of atlanto-occipital joint manipulation and suboccipital muscle inhibition technique on active mouth opening and pressure pain sensitivity over latent myofascial trigger points in the masticatory muscles. Spain Osteopathic school and university 122 31 91 18-30 - Manipulation Pressure Mechanical algometer Before and 2 min post treatment Students Yes
Brazil - Soft tissue
- Control
[44] 2010 Elaine Willett, Clair Hebron and Oliver Krouwel The initial effects of different rates of lumbar mobilizations on pressure pain thresholds in asymptomatic subjects. UK University 30 8 22 33.05 (18–57) - 2 Hz Pressure Electronic algometer Base 11 naive physiotherapists 19 non naive Yes
- 1 Hz + 48 h
- Quasi stable + 48 h
[38] 2009 P. Mansilla-Ferragut, C. Fernández-de-las Peñas, F Alburquerque-Sendin, J. A. Cleland and JJ Boscá-Gandia Immediate effects of atlanto-occipital joint Spain Osteopathic school 37 0 37 35 +/−8 - SMT Pressure Mechanical algometer Before and after Volunteers, general population Yes
Manipulation on active mouth opening and pressure pain sensitivity in women with mechanical neck pain.
- Control
[30] 2009 Oliver Thomson, Lesley Haig, Hazel Mansfield The effects of high-velocity low-amplitude thrust manipulation and mobilization techniques on pressure pain threshold in the lumbar spine. Sweden Stockholm College Osteopathic 50 29 21 27 - unilateral HVLAT Pressure Pressure algometer Before and after Students Yes
UK School British College - Spinal lumbar mobilization
- Sham laser procedure
[43] 2009 Oliver Krouwel , Clair Hebron, Elaine Willett An investigation into the potential hypoalgesic effects of different amplitudes of PA mobilizations on the lumbar spine as measured by pressure pain thresholds. UK University 30 9 21 26,43 (SD 4,92) - Large oscillation (force applied) Pressure Digital algometer Baseline before and + 24, + 24 13/30 physiotherapy naives Yes
- Small oscillation quasi static
[18] 2009 Joel E. Bialosky, Mark D. Bishop, Michael E. Robinson, Giorgio Zeppieri Jr, Steven Z. George Spinal manipulative therapy has an immediate effect on thermal pain sensitivity in people with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. USA University 36 10 26 32.38 (12.63) - SMT Numerical scale Before and Immediately after Students with low back pain No
- Biking
- Back extension exercise
[19] 2008 J. Fernández-Carnero, Cesar Fernández-de-las-Peñas, and Joshua A. Cleland Immediate hypoalgesic and motor effects after a single cervical manipulation in subjects with lateral epicondyalgia. Spain Universities and Osteopathic school Madrid 10 5 5 42 (SD6) - Manipulative session T° and pressure Electronic algometer Before and after Patients Yes
USA - Manual contact intervention
[39] 2008 C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C. Alonso-Blanco, J. A. Cleland, C. Rodriguez-Blanco and F.Alburquerque-Sendin Changes in pressure pain thresholds over C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint after a cervicothoracic junction manipulation in healthy subjects. Spain Universities and Osteopathic school Madrid 30 13 17 26 (SD 5) - Manipulative thrust right side C7-T1 Pressure Algometer Before and after General population Yes
- Manipulative thrust left side C7-T1
USA - Sham-manual procedure
[20] 2007 M. Ruiz-Sáez, C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C. Rodriguez Blanco, R. Martinez-Segura and R. Garcia-León Changes in pressure pain sensitivity in latent myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle after a cervical spine manipulation in pain-free subjects. Spain Osteopathic school 72 27 46 31 (SD10) - Manipulative Pressure Mechanical algometer Baseline before 1, 5 and 10 min after Volunteers, general population Yes
- Sham-manual
[31] 2007 Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Pérez-de-Heredia M, Brea-Rivero M, Miangolarra-Page JC. Immediate effects on pressure pain threshold following a single cervical spine manipulation in healthy subjects. Spain Universities 15 7 8 21 + −2 - Manipulation Pressure Mechanical algometer Before 5 min after intervention Students Yes
- Placebo 3 sessions separated by 48 h
- Control
[34] 2007 Hamilton L, Boswell C, Fryer G The effects of high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation and muscle energy technique on suboccipital tenderness. Australia University 90 29 61 23 +/−5 - SMT (C0- C1) Pressure Electronic algometer Before and after Students Yes
- Muscle energy technique
- Control
[36] 2006 George SZ, Bishop MD, Bialosky JE, Zeppieri G Jr, Robinson ME. Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study. USA University 60 20 40 24.03(SD 3.2° - SMT Medoc neurosensory analyzer Before and 5 min after Students Yes
- Lumbar ext exercise
- Bicycle riding
[40] 2004 P.Mohammadi, A. Gonsalves, Chris Tsai, T. Hummel and Thomas Carpenter Areas of capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia are reduced by a single chiropractic adjustment: preliminary study. USA Universities 20 14 6 27 (21–37) - SMT Cutaneous capsaicin Visual Analogue Scale Before and 20 min after after Healthy volunteers, mostly naive to SMT Yes
Germany - Non-SMT
[35] 2004 Fryer G, Carub J, McIver S. The effect of manipulation and mobilization on pressure pain thresholds in the thoracic spine. Australia University 96 39 57 19-34 - SMT T2-T4 Pressure Electronic algometer Before and after Students Yes
- Mobilisation
- Control
[21] 2001 M. Sterling, G. Jull, A. Wright Cervical mobilization: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity. Canada University 30 14 16 35.7 (SD 14.92) - SMT Pressure / T° Visual Analogue Scale, electronic algometer Before and after Patients pain +3 months C5/6 Yes
- Placebo
- Control
[32] 1998 Bill Vicenzino, David Collins and Anthony Wright An investigation of the Interrelationship between manipulative therapy-Induced hypoalgesia and sympathoexcitation. Australia University 24 11 13 49.0 (27–70) - Mobilization C5-C6 Pressure / T° Visual Analogue Scale, digital algometer Before and after Patients epicond 6.2 +/− 5.1 months Yes
- Manual contact placebo
- Nothing
[33] 1996 Bill Vicenzino, David Collins and Anthony Wright The initial effects of a cervical spine manipulative physiotherapy treatment on the pain and dysfunction of lateral epicondyalgia. Australia University 15 7 8 44 +/−2 - Treatment Pressure Visual Analogue Scale digital algometer Before and after Patients epicond 8 +/− 2 months Yes
- Placebo
- Control
[41] 1984 Terrett AC, Vernon H. Manipulation and pain tolerance. A controlled study of the effect of spinal manipulation on paraspinal cutaneous pain tolerance levels. Canada Chiropractic college 50 ? ? 28.6 - Thoracic manipulation Electrical induction Thresholds Before and after Chiropractic students No
  - Control group  
  1. T° = temperature.