Skip to main content

Table 5 Description of studies on osteoarthritis (OA)

From: What is the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems in the elderly population in developed countries? A systematic critical literature review

  First author Publ. year Country Study design / Population /Method of collection Sample size Crude response rate (%) Outcome definition Outcome assessment method Prevalence period Age Prevalence* (95% CI) Risk of bias
    Total M F       M F Total  
Knee, symptomatic Carmona [11] 2001 Spain (20+ yo), a stratified multistage cluster sample from the censuses of 20 municipalities. Postal questionnaire + interview (rheumatologist) 2192 1014 1178 73 ACR clinical criteria Self report Point 60-69    28.1 L
70-79 33.7
80+ 21.3
Knee, symptomatic Fernandez-Lopez [25] 2008 Spain 2000, (20+ yo), stratified poly-stage cluster sampling from 20 city censuses, home visit questionnaire + interview (rheumatologist) 2192 1014 1178 73 ACR clinical criteria Self report Point 60-69 18.1 37.2 28.1 L
70-79 16.7 44.1 33.7
80+ 14.3 25.5 21.3
Knee, symptomatic Mannoni [30] 2003 Italy 1995, (65+ yo), the entire population of 65+ yo in Dicomano (The ICARe Dicomano study). Home interview and examination (geriatrician) 697 406 291 81 ACR clinical criteria Clinical examination Point 65+    29.8 L
Knee, symptomatic Picavet [18] 2003 The Netherlands 1998, (25+ yo), a 6 months follow-up on a baseline stratified random sample taken from the population register (the DMC3-study). Postal questionnaire 2338 ? ? 85 "Please indicate whether a physician or medical specialist has ever told you that you have one or more of the following diseases [OA]” Self report Point 65-74    27 H
75+ 28
Knee, radiographic Jordan [27] 2007 USA 1991-7, (45+ yo), stratified simple random sampling of streets as primary sampling units and stratified subsampling of Caucasian women age 65 years or older residents of one of 6 townships (the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project). Home interview and clinical examination 3690 ? ? 72 K-L ≥2 Radiograph Point 65-74    36.1 (33.8-38.6) U
75+ 49.9 (45.4-54.4)
Knee, radiographic Kim [28] 2010 South Korea 2007, (50+ yo), a follow-up study of a random proportional sample from the Korean National Census of elderly community residents in Chuncheon city. Home interview, Questionnaire and examination 504 230 274 55 K-L ≥2 Radiograph Point 60-69 4 40 26 U
70-79 18 65 42
80-89 34 98 65
Knee, radiographic Muraki [31] 2009 Japan 2002, (65+ yo), random samples of community-dwelling people from listings of resident registration in three communities (Itabashi-ku, Hidakagawa-cho, Taiji-cho). Interview, Questionnaire and examination 2282 817 1465 29-76 K-L ≥2 Radiograph Point 65-69 42 61   U
70-74 46 71
75-79 51 74
80+ 53 81
Knee, radiographic Sudo [32] 2008 Japan (65+ yo), all community inhabitants recruited in Miyagawa village, in central Mie Prefecture. Questionnaire and interview (hospital) 598 205 393 40 K-L ≥2 Radiograph Point 65-74 14 33   U
75-84 26 41
85+ 23 47
Knee, radiographic Yoshida [34] 2002 Japan 2000, (40+ yo), all women identified by the municipal electroral list of Oshima town, Nagasaki (The Hizen-Oshima Study). examination 586   586 30 K-L ≥2 Radiograph Point 63-69   35.8   U
70-79 54.0
80-89 63.3
Knee, radiographic Yoshimura [33] 2009 Japan 2005-7, (40+ yo), recruited from the resident-registration lists of the Hidakagawa & Taiji regions or from a randomly selected cohort study from the Itabashi (Tokyo) Ward resident registration database (the ROAD study). Examination 3040 1061 1979 76 K-L ≥2 Radiograph Point 60-69 35.2 57.1   U
70-79 48.2 71.9
80+ 51.6 80.7
Knee, symptomatic + radiographic Andrianakos [23] 2006 Greece 1966-99, (19+ yo), the total adult population in 7 mixed communities + random sample in another 2 mixed communities (the ESORDIG study). Interview, Questionnaire and examination (home visit, rheumatologist) 8740 4269 4471 82 ACR clinical criteria + radiograph (unknown definition) Self report + radiograph Point 60-64 5.4 21.4 13.3 L
65-69 8.4 21.1 15.3
70-74 11.7 28.0 20.4
75-79 19.3 33.3 27.6
80+ 27.2 27.2 22.5
Knee, symptomatic + radiographic Sudo [32] 2008 Japan (65+ yo), all community inhabitants recruited in Miyagawa village, in central Mie Prefecture. Questionnaire and interview (hospital) 598 205 393 40 Questionnaire (no additional information) + K-L ≥2 Self report + radiograph Point 65-74 8 26   U
75-84 17 28
85+ 16 31
Knee, symptomatic + radiographic Jordan [27] 2007 USA 1991-7, (45+ yo), stratified simple random sampling of streets as primary sampling units and stratified subsampling of Caucasian women age 65 years or older residents of one of 6 townships (the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project). Home interview + clinical examination 3690 ? ? 72 “On most days, do you have pain, aching, or stiffness in your (right, left) knee?” + K-L ≥2 Self report + radiograph Point 65-74    20.8 28.8-23.0) U
75+ 32.8 (29.5-36.3)
Knee, symptomatic + radiographic Kim [28] 2010 South Korea 2007, (50+ yo), a follow-up study of a random proportional sample from the Korean National Census of elderly community residents in Chuncheon city. Home interview, Questionnaire and examination 504 230 274 55 “Have you experienced pain, aching, or stiffness lasting at least a month in a knee?” + K-L grade ≥2 Self report + radiograph Point 60-69 2 27 17 U
70-79 9 48 28
80-89 12 63 38
76-94   18.7  
Knee, symptomatic + radiographic Muraki [31] 2009 Japan 2002, (65+ yo), random samples of community-dwelling people from listings of resident registration in three communities (Itabashi-ku, Hidakagawa-cho, Taiji-cho). Interview, Questionnaire and examination 2282 817 1465 29-76 Knee pain lasting at least 1 month with pain having last occurred within the current or previous year + K-L ≥2 Self report + radiograph Point 65-69 17 22   U
70-74 15 36
75-79 16 34
80+ 18 39
Hand, symptomatic Carmona [11] 2001 Spain (20+ yo), a stratified multistage cluster sample from the censuses of 20 municipalities. Postal Questionnaire + Interview (rheumatologist) 2192 1014 1178 73 ACR clinical criteria Self report Point 60-69    15.3 L
70-79 23.9
80+ 17.3
Hand, symptomatic Mannoni [37] 2003 Italy 1995, (65+ yo), the entire population of 65+ yo in Dicomano (The ICARe Dicomano study). Home interview and examination (geriatician) 697 406 291 81 ACR clinical; criteria Clinical examination Point 65+    14.9 L
Hand, radiographic Dillon [24] 2007 USA 1991-4, (60+ yo), a multistage, cluster and stratified representative sample of US civilians (NHANES III). Home Questionnaire and Interview, Examination in mobile examination centre 2498 ? ? 62 NHANES III criteria, but with no history of persistent symptoms Self report + clinical examination Point 60-69    31.5 L
70-79 43.9
80+ 41.2
Hand, radiographic Haugen [26] 2011 Norway 1992-5 & 2002–5, (28–92 yo), baseline data from the 1992–5 Community cohort of the Framingham Heart Study selected through random-digit dialing and from the 2002–5 Offspring cohort, Massachusetts. Postal questionnaire + examination 2300 ? ? 43 Modified K-L grade ≥2 (2 = mild HOA, i.e. small OP(s) and/or mild JSN, sclerosis may be present) Radiograph Point 60-64 56 63   U
65-69 71 82
70-74 78 91
75-79 72 92
80+ 96 100
Hand, radiographic Kwok [29] 2011 The Netherlands 1997-3, (55+ yo), responders from follow-up of 1990–3 random sample of inhabitants living in the Ommoord district, Rotterdam (the Rotterdam Study). Questionnaire and Interview (home), Examination 3430 1509 1921 43 ‘Mild’ OA defined as KL grade ≥2 in at least one finger joint Radiograph Point 65-74 56.3 68.4 62.9 U
75-84 63.3 78.9 72.8
85+ 66.7 68.4 67.9
Hand, symptomatic + radiographic Andrianakos [23] 2006 Greece 1966-99, (19+ yo), the total adult population in 7 mixed communities + random sample in another 2 mixed communities (the ESORDIG study). Interview, Questionnaire and examination (home visit, rheumatologist). 8740 4269 4471 82 ACR clinical criteria + radiograph (unknown definition) Self report + radiograph Point 60-64 0.9 7.0 3.9 L
65-69 2.1 8.8 5.7
70-74 3.3 7.8 5.8
75-79 4.0 8.1 6.5
80+ 1.8 5.5 4.2
Hand, symptomatic + radiographic Dillon [24] 2007 USA 1991-4, (60+ yo), a multistage, cluster and stratified representative sample of US civilians (NHANES III). Home Questionnaire and Interview, Examination (mobile examination centre). 2498 ? ? 62 NHANES III criteria Self report + clinical examination Point 60-69    6.1 L
70-79 9.9
80+ 9.7
Hand, symptomatic + radiographic Kwok [29] 2011 The Netherlands 1997-3, (55+ yo), responders from follow-up of 1990–3 random sample of inhabitants living in the Ommoord district, Rotterdam (the Rotterdam Study). Questionnaire and Interview (home), Examination 3430 1509 1921 43 ‘Did you have any pain in the right or left hand during the last month?’ + ‘Mild’ OA defined as KL grade ≥2 in at least one finger joint Self report + radiograph Point 65-74 6.1 18.9 13.1 U
75-84 5.3 14.2 10.7
85+ 0.0 21.1 14.3
Hand, symptomatic + radiographic Zhang [36] 2002 USA 1992-3, (71+ yo), all participants from the original cohort in 1948 aged 26–62 (the Framingham Study). Questionnaire and Interview, Examination 1032 369 663 89 “On most days, do you have pain, aching, or stiffness in any of your joints?” + K-L ≥2 Self report + radiograph Point 71-74 16.4 27.2   U
75-79 11.9 26.1
80+ 13.5 26.0
Hip, symptomatic Picavet [18] 2003 The Netherlands 1998, (25+ yo), a 6 months follow-up on a baseline stratified random sample taken from the population register (the DMC3-study). Postal questionnaire 2338 ? ? 85 "Please indicate whether a physician or medical specialist has ever told you that you have one or more of the following diseases [OA]” Self report Life time 65-74    17 H
75+ 22
Hip, symptomatic Mannoni [37] 2003 Italy 1995, (65+ yo), the entire population of 65+ yo in Dicomano (The ICARe Dicomano study). Interview and examination (home visit, geriatrician) 697 406 291 81 ACR clinical criteria Clinical examination Point 65+    7.7 L
Hip, symptomatic + radiographic Andrianakos [23] 2006 Greece 1966-99, (19+ yo), the total adult population in 7 mixed communities + random sample in another 2 mixed communities (the ESORDIG study). Interview, Questionnaire and examination (home visit, geriatrician) 8740 4269 4471 82 ACR clinical criteria + radiograph (unknown definition) Self report + radiograph Point 60-64 0.7 3.5 2.1 L
65-69 0.5 4.1 2.4
70-74 1.2 3.9 2.6
75-79 0.6 4.3 3.0
80+ 0.6 2.8 1.8
Lumbar spine radiographic Yoshimura [33] 2009 Japan 2005-7, (40+ yo), recruited from the resident-registration lists of the Hidakagawa & Taiji regions or from a randomly selected cohort study from the Itabashi (Tokyo) Ward resident registration database (the ROAD study). Examination 3040 1061 1979 76 K-L ≥3 Radiograph Point 60-69 74.6 64.3   U
70-79 85.3 76.1
80+ 89.9 79.6
Lumbar spine radiographic Yoshimura [35] 2009 Japan 1990, (40-79yo), all inhabitants from the register of residents in Miyama village were invited (the Miyama Study). Examination 400 200 200 100 K-L ≥3 Radiograph Point 60-69 39.6 38.0   U
           70-79 38.3 34.7   
  1. *Prevalence estimates without decimals are obtained from figures/graphs in the article and should be interpreted with caution.
  2. R: Register. L: Low, U: Unclear, H: High.
  3. GP: General practitioner; ACR: The American College of Rheumatology (ACR clinical criteria for RA [22]).