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Table 6 Description of studies on osteoporosis (OP)

From: What is the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems in the elderly population in developed countries? A systematic critical literature review

  First author Publ. year Country Study design / Population /Method of collection Sample size Crude response rate (%) Outcome definition Outcome assessment method Prevalence period Age Prevalence* (95% CI) Risk of bias
    Total M F       M F Total  
Lumbar spine or hip Andrianakos [41] 2006 Greece 1966-99, (19+ yo), the total population in 7 mixed communities + random sample in another 2 mixed communities. Examination (rheumatological centers) 8740 4269 4471 82 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less DXA Point 59-64    7 L
69+ 10
Lumbar spine or hip Bleicher [43] 2010 Australia 2005-07, (70+ yo), community-dwelling in three local government areas around Sydney (CHAMP). Questionnaire + Examination 1626 1626 0 45 Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme criteria for OP: BMD T-score −3 SD or less Hologic DXA Point 70-74    5.0 U
75-79 4.0
80-84 5.0
85-89 5.0
90+ 14.0
Lumbar spine or hip Naves [48] 2005 Spain (50+ yo), randomly selected from the Oviedo municipal register. Postal questionnaire + examination 229 229 0 74 The Int. Society of Clinical Densitometry: BMD with a T-score −2.5 SD or less Hologic DXA, QDR 1000 densitometer Point 80+ 12.5    U
Lumbar spine or hip Sanfélix-Genovés [49] 2010 Spain 2006-7, (50+ yo), stratified random sample of women included in the Population Information System of the Valencia Healthcare Agency, Valencia (the FRAVO Study). Interview, questionnaire + examination 824 0 824 47 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Norland & Hologic densitometer Point 60-64   22.5 (16.3-28.8)   U
65-69 32.4 (25.2-39.4)
70-74 39.9 (31.8-47.9)
75+ 49.3 (37.4-61.2)
Lumbar spine or hip Vestergaard [52] 2005 Denmark 1995-9, all in- and outpatients recorded in The National Hospital Discharge Register (=100%) based on all ICD-10 codes on OP. National register 11359 1426 9933 N/A WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less The National Hospital Discharge Register Point 60-64 14.7   29.6 L
65-69 19.9 44.0
70-74 26.1 59.1
75-79 33.1 72.2
80-84 40.4 81.3
85-89 47.8 85.8
90-94 55.3 88.6
95+ 64.3 92.3
Lumbar spine Cui [44] 2008 South Korea 2004-5, (20–79 yo), from the Namwon study and the Thyroid Disease Prevalence study and from two provinces. Interview + questionnaire + clinical examination 4148 1810 2338 39 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Lunar DXA Point 60-69 8.7 51.3   U
70-79 12.8 60.2
Lumbar spine Henry [45] 2000 Australia 1997, (20–94 yo), age-stratified, random, population-based sample of women registered (compulsory) in the Commonwealth of Australia Electoral Rolls, Geelong. Questionnaire + examination. 1494 0 1494 63 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Lunar DXA, DPX-L densitometer Point 60-64   10.5   U
65-69 15.2
70-79 28.8
80+  
Lumbar spine Sanfélix-Genovés [49] 2010 Spain 2006-7, (50+ yo), stratified random sample of women included in the Population Information System of the Valencia Healthcare Agency, Valencia (the FRAVO Study). Interview, questionnaire + examination 824 0 824 47 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Norland & Hologic densitometer Point 60-64   18.5 (12.7-24.3)   U
65-69   28.2 (21.4-35.0)  
70-74   37.8 (28.8-45.7)  
75+   39.1 (27.5-50.7)  
Lumbar spine Shin [50] 2010 South Korea 2006-7, (40+ yo), selected group from the 2001 cohort of residents in the farming community of Ansung through mailing, door-to-door and telehpone solicitations (the Korean Health and Genome Study, KHGS). Examination 3538 1547 1991 71 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Lunar Prodigy DXA Point 60-69 13.7 28.5   U
70-79 22.4 47.5
Lumbar spine Vestergaard [52] 2005 Denmark 1995-9, all in- and outpatients recorded in The National Hospital Discharge Register (=100%) based on all ICD-10 codes on OP. Register (National) 11359 1426 9933 N/A WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less The National Hospital Discharge Register Point 60-64 3.4   17.3 L
65-69 4.6 27.7
70-74 6.0 39.6
75-79 7.9 51.1
80-84 10.1 60.2
85-89 12.7 66.0
90-94 15.8 68.2
95+ 19.8 65.6
Lumbar spine Yang [51] 2004 Taiwan 1994-8, female patients entering a hospital for a DXA scan. Examination (hospital) 4689 0 4689 ? Threshold level, lumbar spine < 0.827 g/cm2 Lunar DXA Point 60-69   14.1   H
70-79 14.3
80+ 16.1
Lumbar spine Yoshimura [35] 2009 Japan 1990, (40–79 yo), all inhabitants from the register of residents in Miyama village (the Miyama Study). Examination 400 200 200 100 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Lunar DXA Point 60-69 12.0 38.0   U
70-79 14.0 60.0
Lumbar spine Yoshimura [33] 2009 Japan 2005-7, (40+ yo), recruited from the resident-registration lists of the Hidakagawa & Taiji regions or from a randomly selected cohort study from the Itabashi (Tokyo) Ward resident registration database (the ROAD study). Examination 3040 1061 1979 76 Criteria of the Japanese Society of Bone and Mineral Research (BMD <70% of PBM: lumbar spine BMD < 0.708 g/cm2) Hologic DXA Point 60-69 2.6 13.5   U
70-79 3.6 29.8
80+ 7.4 43.8
Hip Vestergaard [52] 2005 Denmark 1995-9, all in- and outpatients recorded in The National Hospital Discharge Register (=100%) based on all ICD-10 codes on OP. National register 11359 1426 9933 N/A WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less The National Hospital Discharge Register Point 60-64 12.7 20.0   L
65-69 17.7 30.4
70-74 23.7 42.5
75-79 30.8 54.6
80-84 38.6 65.4
85-89 46.9 73.9
90-94 55.3 79.9
95+ 64.3 83.9
Femoral neck Cui [44] 2008 South Korea 2004-5, (20–79 yo), from the Namwon study and the Thyroid Disease Prevalence study invited to clinical examination and interview, from two provinces. Interview, questionnaire + examination 4148 1810 2338 39 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Lunar DXA Point 60-69 7.3 11.4   U
70-79 15.2 36.7
Femoral neck Henry [45] 2000 Australia 1997, (20–94 yo), age-stratified, random, population-based sample of women registered (compulsory) in the Commonwealth of Australia Electoral Rolls, Geelong. Questionnaire + examination 1494 0 1494 63 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD (NB. Hip: femoral neck used in this review) Lunar DXA, DPX-L densitometer Point 60-64   15.2   U
65-69 20.8
70-79 31.6
80+ 36.5
Femoral neck Holt [46] 2002 UK (50+ yo), random sample from seven health centres (Aberdeen, Bath, rural Cambridgeshire, Harrow, Truro, Norfolk, and Cambridge City). Questionnaire + examination 7426 2253 5173 48 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD (NB. Hip: femoral neck used in this review) Hologic DXA, QDR 1000 densitometer Point 65+ 2.7 8.1   U
Femoral neck Sanfélix-Genovés [49] 2010 Spain 2006-7, (50+ yo), stratified random sample of women included in the Population Information System of the Valencia Healthcare Agency, Valencia (the FRAVO Study). Interview, questionnaire + examination 824 0 824 47 WHO BMD T-score −2.5 SD or less Norland & Hologic Densitometer. Point 60-64 6.9 (3.1-10.7)    U
65-69 10.1 (9.4-21.3)
70-74 15.4 (9.4-21.3)
75+ 34.8 (23.4-46.1)
Femoral neck Yang [51] 2004 Taiwan 1994-8, female patients entering a hospital for a DXA scan. Examination (hospital) 4689 0 4689 ? Threshold level, femoral neck < 0.605 g/cm2. Lunar DXA Point 60-69   11.2   H
70-79 17.3  
80+ 24.0  
Femoral neck Yoshimura [33] 2009 Japan 2005-7, (40+ yo), recruited from the resident-registration lists of the Hidakagawa & Taiji regions or from a randomly selected cohort study from the Itabashi (Tokyo) Ward resident registration database (the ROAD study). Examination 3040 1061 1979 76 Criteria of the Japanese Society of Bone and Mineral Research (BMD <70% of PBM): femoral neck < 0604 g/cm2 (men) & < 0.55 g/cm2 (women) Hologic DXA Point 60-69 7.0 22.2   U
70-79 22.3 42.9
80+ 13.0 65.1
Phalanges Biino [42] 2011 Italy 2003-2008, (30–103 yo), all residents from 10 villages of the Ogliastra region, Sardinia. Interview + examination 6326 2024 4302 51 AD-SoS T-score −3.2 SD or less Quantitative II-V phalanges ultrasound Point 60-69 9.6 24.2   U
70-79 13.6 42.7
80+ 25.8 62.1
Heel Kenny [47] 2009 USA Community-dwelling and assisted living adults recruited through community talks. Questionnaire + examination 114 81 33 ? BMD T-score level not stated Lunar QUS, Quantitative heel Ultrasound Point 82.4 ± 4.6    31.6 H
Other Cheng [53] 2009 USA 1999-2005, (65+ yo), a 5% national sample from beneficiaries fee-for service Medicare parts A and B coverage, not enrolled in a health maintenance organisation. Register (Medicare) 911327 359733 551594 N/A Beneficiaries with at least one claim for certain OP related services and with ICD code for OP or fractures associated with OP ICD-9 code for OP Point 65-69    2.0 U
70-74 17.2
75-79 25.5
80+ 55.4
Other Collerton [12] 2009 UK 2006-7, (85+ yo), all people born in 1921, permanently registered with a participating GP in Newcastle upon Tyne or North Tyneside primary care trusts (the Newcastle 85+ Study). Register (GP) 853 323 530 59 Not stated Medical record Point 85 3.8 20.0 14.2 U
Other Kotz [54] 2004 USA 1994 + 1995, (16–94 yo at baseline in 1965), responders who have survived until at least 1994, from the random representative sample of women from the Alameda County Study, California. Postal questionnaire 1171 0 1171 97 Ever had osteoporosis? Self report Life time 66-75   11.5   H
76-94 18.7
Other Lespessailles [55] 2009 France 2006, (45+ yo), stratified random sample of women from the national population data (INSEE) (the INSTANT study). Interview + questionnaire (door to door) 2613 0 2613 N/A Whether they had osteoporosis + whether this had been diagnosed by bone densitometry Self report Life time 60-64   10   U
65-69 14
70-74 17
75-79 16
80-84 15
85+ 10
Other. Picavet [18] 2003 The Netherlands 1998, (25+ yo), a 6 months follow-up on a baseline stratified random sample taken from the population register (the DMC3-study). Postal questionnaire 2338 ? ? 85 "Please indicate whether a physician or medical specialist has ever told you that you have one or more of the following diseases [OP]” Self report Life time 65-74    13 H
75+ 15
Other. Saks [56] 2001 Estonia 2000, (65+ yo), a stratified random sample of patients from 200 random GPs in 16 Estonian regions. Register (GP). 811 391 420 81 GP diagnosis without any further description or validation Medical record Point 65-84    15.2 U
85+ 19.5
Other Werner [57] 2003 Israel 1997-8, (60+ yo), a stratified random sample of Jewish and Arab community-dwelling persons from the Central Bureau of Statistics (the Israeli Survey of Elderly Persons Aged 60 and Over Study). Interview + questionnaire (home visit) 3022 1688 1334 60 Whether a physician had ever diagnosed them as having osteoporosis Self report Life time 60-69 5.0 20.5   U
70-79 8.0 26.3
           80+ 7.9 28.3   
  1. *Prevalence estimates without decimals are obtained from figures/graphs in the article and should be interpreted with caution.
  2. R: Register. L: Low, U: Unclear, H: High.
  3. BMD: Bone mineral density; WHO: World Health Organization, GP: general practitioner, DXA: Dual X-ray absorptometry.