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Table 2 Participant health characteristics (N = 7,519)

From: Who uses Australian chiropractic services?

  Visit to chiropractor in last 12 months1   
  No (N = 6385) Yes (N = 1134)   
Participant health characteristics Number % Number % OR (95% CI)2 P
Health rate (SF 12) [18]:       
- Fair/poor 1056 17 165 15 REF 0.16
- Good/excellent 5253 83 956 85 1.16 (0.94 –1.43)  
Current smoker 1153 18 202 18 0.97 (0.82 – 1.15) 0.73
Hazardous drinking [19] 1033 16 197 17 1.06 (0.92 – 1.23) 0.42
Long term health problem limits daily activities 2021 33 345 31 0.94 (0.84 – 1.06) 0.29
Back problem in last 12 months3 1542 24 543 48 2.90 (2.53 – 3.31) <0.001
Arthritis in last 12 months 1142 18 183 16 0.88 (0.74 – 1.06) 0.19
Cardiovascular disorder in last 12 months4 1543 24 241 21 0.84 (0.72 – 0.98) 0.03
Respiratory disorder in last 12 months5 948 15 190 17 1.15 (0.97 – 1.38) 0.12
Dermatitis in last 12 months 414 7 99 9 1.38 (1.12 – 1.71) 0.003
Diabetes in last 12 months 333 5 54 5 0.92 (0.68 – 1.24) 0.58
Cancer in last 12 months 162 3 26 2 0.91 (0.61 – 1.35) 0.63
Depression in last 12 months 1138 18 206 18 1.03 (0.86 – 1.23) 0.78
Depression and antidepressant use in last 12 months 591 9 94 8 0.89 (0.75 – 1.05) 0.15
Told by Dr you have depression 1821 31 337 32 1.07 (0.92 – 1.24) 0.38
Anxiety in last 12 months 1040 16 201 18 1.11 (0.96 – 1.29) 0.16
Told by doctor you have anxiety 1382 25 254 26 1.05 (0.90 – 1.23) 0.53
Afraid of partner 1003 16 184 16 1.02 (0.84 – 1.24) 0.81
Medication use in last 12 months:       
- Analgesics6 1677 27 279 25 0.92 (0.80 – 1.07) 0.28
- Medications for physical problems7 2412 38 381 34 0.83 (0.72 – 0.95) 0.009
- Depression medications 876 14 150 13 0.97 (0.79 – 1.19) 0.77
- Sedatives 466 7 77 7 0.95 (0.79 – 1.15) 0.61
- Other medications8 1476 33 256 32 0.96 (0.80 – 1.16) 0.70
- Complementary & alternative medication9 1488 24 395 35 1.79 (1.54 – 2.07) <0.001
  1. 1. Denominators may vary due to missing data.
  2. 2. Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and P values using logistic regression using generalised estimating equations with robust standard errors.
  3. 3. Includes back problem, chronic back pain or sciatica.
  4. 4. Includes stroke, hypertension, heart disease, lipid disorder.
  5. 5. Includes sinusitis, asthma and emphysema.
  6. 6. Includes painkillers and arthritis medication.
  7. 7. Includes blood pressure, cholesterol lowering & asthma medication.
  8. 8. Includes contraceptives and indigestion medication.
  9. 9. Includes vitamins, minerals and herbs.