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Table 2 The (Mean ± SD) scores for the ultrasound thickness measurements (in mm) of the abdominal muscles during different testing positions in both groups

From: Reliability of ultrasound measurement of automatic activity of the abdominal muscle in participants with and without chronic low back pain

Position Muscle Without LBP With LBP
First assessment Second assessment Third assessment First assessment Second assessment
P 1 TrA 3.6 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 1.0
IO 9.2 ± 1.4 9.3 ± 1.3 9.2 ± 1.5 8.4 ± 1.5 8.3 ± 1.1
EO 5.8 ± 1.1 5.9 ± 1.2 5.9 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 1.4
RA 12.9 ± 2.0 13.0 ± 2.3 13.1 ± 2.1 14.0 ± 3.7 14.2 ± 4.3
P 2 TrA 4.0 ± 0.7 3.9 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 0.8
IO 9.4 ± 1.5 9.4 ± 1.3 9.5 ± 1.8 8.1 ± 1.2 8.3 ± 1.3
EO 6.2 ± 1.2 6.0 ± 1.1 5.9 ± 1.2 6.4 ± 2.0 6.7 ± 2.0
RA 13.1 ± 2.0 13.2 ± 2.1 13.4 ± 2.0 15.8 ± 5.2 15.3 ± 4.8
P 3 TrA 4.4 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 0.7
IO 10.0 ± 1.6 10.0 ± 1.7 10.3 ± 1.6 8.8 ± 2.2 9.1 ± 2.3
EO 6.2 ± 1.1 6.54 ± 1.3 6.3 ± 1.1 6.6 ± 2.2 6.9 ± 2.6
RA 13.9 ± 2.1 14.1 ± 2.4 14.2 ± 2.1 16.2 ± 5.4 16.4 ± 6.0
P 4 TrA 6.6 ± 0.8 6.3 ± 0.6 6.5 ± 0.8 4.9 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.0
IO 12.8 ± 2.1 12.8 ± 2.1 12.6 ± 2.0 10.5 ± 2.5 10.5 ± 2.3
EO 7.5 ± 0.9 7.4 ± 1.2 7.4 ± 1.0 7.9 ± 2.6 7.9 ± 2.2
RA 16.5 ± 2.5 16.8 ± 2.8 16.9 ± 2.2 17.2 ± 4.8 17.5 ± 5.4
  1. SD Standard deviation, LBP Low back pain, TrA Transversus abdominis, IO Internal oblique, EO External oblique, RA Rectus abdominis, P 1 Supine lying, P 2 Sitting on chair with both feet on the ground, P 3 Sitting on gym ball with both feet on the ground, P 4 Sitting on gym ball lifting the left foot off the floor.