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Table 4 COP excursions associated with therapeutic interventions

From: Does postural sway change in association with manual therapeutic interventions? A review of the literature

Study Intervention   Experimental setup Results
Sampling duration (sec) Follow-up period Number of repetitions COP parameter Postural task Postural sway Pain intensity
        Pre-intervention Post-intervention Pre-intervention Post-intervention
Persson et al. [21] Physiotherapy 10 12 weeks 1 mVel (mm/s) narrow stance     
Total: 15x e.g. exercise, massage      EO/F 11.4 12.9 47 (8) VAS 39 (29) VAS
EC/F 15.8 15.6
Lafond et al. [20] † Total: 30 8 weeks 1 mVel AP narrow stance    60 (VAS) 20 (VAS)
Spinal manipulation     (mm/s) EO/F ~10.0 ~5.5
16x cervical (HVLA)      EC/F ~13.0 ~7.5
C2/3 level     mVel ML narrow stance   
Rehabilitation     (mm/s) EO/F ~6.0 ~2.0
16x strengthening      EC/F ~7.5 ~2.0
16x oculomotor     area (mm2) narrow stance   
exercise      EO/F 86.0 100.3
16x balance      EC/F - -
exercise
16x stretching
Jones [27] 1x Spinal manipulation unclear same day∞ unclear mVel (mm/s) normal stance    N/A N/A
lumbar (HVLA)      EO/F 4.5 (1.7) 4.3 (1.8)
1x Muscle energy      EC/F 6.0 (2.2) 5.4 (3.0)
technique      unipedal stance   
1x Myofascial      EO/F 17.3 (6.1) 17.0 (3.6)
technique      EC/F 38.6 (11.5) 35.4 (11.9)
tandem stance   
EO/F 14.7 (5.5) 12.0 (4.4) **
EC/F 25.8 (9.6) 21.4 (8.1) ***
Vaillant et al. [19] † Mobilization EO: 4 same day∞ 6 displacement AP (mm) narrow stance    N/A N/A
1x ankle/feet EC: 8   6   EO/F 36 34
Massage     displacement ML (mm) EC/F 62-68 58-62
1x ankle/feet      narrow stance   
EO/F 47 42
EC/F 74-88 67-70
Nolan [28] † Manipulation 60 same day∞ 2 stability index normal stance    N/A N/A
1x cervical (HVLA)      EO/F AP 2.90 2.10
C0/1, C1/2 level      EO/F ML 2.55 1.65
Levy et al. [29] Instrument-applied manipulation 10 same 1 sway velocity unclear stance    N/A N/A
(Pro- Adjuster System) day∞   (deg/sec)? EO/F 0.24 (0.11) 0.22 (0.16)
EC/F 0.23 (0.14) 0.19 (0.11)
EO/C 0.61 (0.19) 0.53 (0.15)
EC/C 1.73 (0.49) 1.33 (0.41) *
Alburguerque-Sendin et al. [23] Manipulation 60 same 1 area (mm2) unclear stance    N/A N/A
1x talocrural joint   day∞   mVel AP/ML EO/F area 85.5 (122.3) 52.8 (48.1)
(mm/s) EO/F mVel AP 2.5 (0.6) 2.4 (0.5)
EO/F mVel ML 3.0 (0.7) 2.9 (0.6)
Ruhe et al. [22] Spinal and extremity 90 ~1 week 3 mVel AP/ML (mm/s) narrow stance     
3x manipulation      EC/F AP 13.2 (2.9) 11.1 (2.3) *** 5.6 (2.0) 2.9 (1.6)
(HVLA)      EC/F ML 16.0 (2.7) 13.1 (3.0) *** (NRS-11) (NRS-11)
and mobilization
3x Soft tissue
techniques
(e.g. PIR, ART)
Giemza et al. [24] Exercise, massage, PIR, cryotherapy, diathermy, laser 20 6 weeks 1   normal stance    "great pain" unclear
area (mm2) AP/ML EO/F AP 65.8 (24.2) 14.8 (17.4)**
mVel AP/ML (mm/s) EO/F ML 31.0 (19.3) 13.1 (13.9)**
EO/F AP 89.8 (43.3) 44.1 (25.0)**
       EO/F ML 65.4 (29.9) 33.1 (46.4)**   
  1. † "Same day" refers to a single session consisting of pre-intervention measurement, intervention and post-intervention measurement.
  2. Results are presented as Mean (SD).
  3. Levels of significance compared to baseline: * p≤0.05, ** p≤0.01, *** p≤0.001.
  4. - : not described.
  5. AP: antero-posterior, ART: Active Release Technique, C: compliant (foam) surface, deg/sec: degrees per second, EC: eyes closed, EO: eyes open, F: firm surface, HVLA: high velocity low amplitude, ML: medial-lateral, mVel: mean velocity, N/A: not applicable, PIR: Post-Isometric Relaxation.