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Table 3 Effect of orthosis on mechanical forces

From: Orthosis reduces breast pain and mechanical forces through natural and augmented breast tissue in women lying prone

Outcome Participants Side No orthosis Size-1 Size-2 Size-3 Contrast Change vs no orthosis ANOVA repeated measures
A) All(n= 32)   Mean(SD) Mean(SD) Mean(SD) Mean(SD)   % p-value
Peak pressure(kPa)   left 14.9 (7.4) 6.0 (3.6) 4.5 (3.0) 2.3 (2.1) S0 vs S1: -60 <0.001
S2: -70  
S3: -85  
   right 15.8 (8.4) 6.6 (4.6) 4.8 (3.7) 2.3 (2.1) S0 vs S1: -58 <0.001
S2: -70  
S3: -85  
Max force (N)   left 55.0 (20.4) 14.7 (10.2) 6.9 (5.9) 2.3 (2.6) S0 vs S1: -73 <0.001
        S2 -87  
        :S3: -96  
   right 58.8 (18.7) 15.1 (10.0) 7.3 (6.3) 2.7 (3.0) S0 vs S1: -74 <0.001
        S2: -88  
        S3: -95  
Displacement (cm) All(n= 32) ML 14.6 (1.9) 12.5 (1.8) 12.1 (1.7) 12.2 (1.4) S0 vs S1: -14 <0.001
   right      S2: -17  
        S3: -16  
   AP 4.1 (1.3) 4.7 (1.3) 5.4 (1.1) 6.2 (1.1) S0 vs S1: 15 <0.001
   right      S2: 32  
        S3: 51  
B) Subgroups         
Peak pressure(kPa) Without implant(n= 11) left 12.6 (4.6) 4.2 (3.7) 3.2 (3.2) 2.1 (2.5) S0 vs S1: -67 0.001
S2: -75  
S3: -83  
   right 13.2 (4.9) 4.8 (3.9) 3.3 (3.3) 2.0 (2.4) S0 vs S1: -64 0.006
S2: -75 0.001
S3: -85 0.001
  With implant(n= 20-21) 1 left 16.1 (8.6) 6.6 (2.8) 5.1 (2.7) 2.5 (1.9) S0 vs S1: -59 0.002
S2: -68 <0.001
        S3: -84 <0.001
   right 17.1 (9.5) 7.6 (4.8) 5.6 (3.7) 2.5 (2.0) S0 vs S1: -56 0.001
        S2: -67 <0.001
        S3: -85 <0.001
Max force (N) Without implant(n= 11) left 48.8 (14.4) 10.1 (11.9) 4.6 (6.5) 1.9 (3.3) S0 vs S1: -79 <0.001
  S2: -91  
S3: -96  
   right 61.4 (20.9) 18.1 (8.2) 8.9 (6.0) 3.0 (2.7) S0 vs S1: -71 <0.001
S2: -86  
S3: -95  
  With implant (n = 20-21)1 left 60.4 (20.7) 17.8 (8.0) 8.4 (5.1) 2.7 (2.2) S0 vs S1: -71 <0.001
S2: -86  
S3: -96  
   right 53.6 (12.8) 9.4 (10.6) 4.3 (6.0) 2.0 (3.7) S0 vs S1: -82 <0.001
S2: -92  
S3: -96  
Displacement (cm) Without implant(n= 11) ML 14.5 (1.8) 12.3 (2.5) 11.4 (2.4) 13.2 (1.6) S0 vs S1: -15 0.023
  right S2: -21 0.019
S3: -9 0.023
   AP 3.1 (1.4) 4.1 (1.6) 5.0 (1.2) 6.4 (1.1) S0 vs S1: 32 0.023
right S2: 61 0.051
S3: 106 0.002
  With implant(n= 21) ML 14.6 (1.9) 12.7 (1.0) 12.4 (1.1) 11.9 (1.3) S0 vs S1: -13 0.001
right S2: -15 0.002
S3: -18 <0.001
   AP 4.6 (0.9) 5.2 (0.9) 5.6 (1.1) 6.1 (1.1) S0 vs S1: 13 0.002
right S2: 22 <0.001
S3: 33 <0.001
Peak pressure(kPa) Natural(n= 7) left 13.0 (2.8) 4.3 (4.1) 3.4 (3.4) 2.4 (2.4) S0 vs S1: -67 0.014
S2: -74 0.006
S3: -82 0.002
   right 13.3 (3.6) 5.1 (4.4) 3.4 (3.4) 2.4 (2.4) S0 vs S1: -62 0.084
S2: -74 0.018
S3: -82 0.007
  Lactating(n =2) left 15.0 (11.3) 7.0 (0) 5.5 (2.1) 3.0 (4.2) S0 vs S1: -53 na
S2: -63  
S3: -80  
   right 16.0 (11.3) 7.0 (0) 6.0 (1.4) 2.5 (3.5) S0 vs S1: -56 na
S2: -63  
S3: -84  
  Primary augmentation(n=18) left 16.6 (8.9) 6.7 (2.9) 5.1 (2.9) 2.4 (2.0) S0 vs S1: -60 0.003
S2: -69 0.001
S3: -86 <0.001
   right 16.6 (11.3) 7.0 (0) 6.0 (1.4) 2.5 (3.5) S0 vs S1: -58 0.003
S2: -64 0.001
S3: -85 <0.001
  Reconstruction(n= 2-3) 1 left 11.5 (0.7) 5.5 (0.7) 5.0 (0.7) 3.0 (0) S0 vs S1: -52 na
(n = 2) S2: -57  
S3: -74  
   right 20.3 (14.4) 12.7 (10.7) 9.0 (7.8) 2.0 (1.7) S0 vs S1: -37 na
(n = 3) S2: -56  
S3: -90  
  Lumpectomy(n= 1) left 8 0 0 0 S0 vs all: -100 na
right 10 0 0 0 S0 vs all: -100  
  Tram flap(n= 1) left 10 2 0 0 S0 vs all: -80,-100 na
right 10 3 0 0 S0 vs all: -70,-100  
Max force(N) Natural(n= 7) left 52.3 (13.9) 11.6 (13.1) 5.0 (7.0) 2.1 (3.7) S0 vs S1: -78 0.005
S2: -90 0.001
S3: -96 0.001
   right 51.4 (12.0) 10.1 (11.4) 4.0 (5.6) 2.1 (4.1) S0 vs S1: -80 0.005
S2: -92 0.001
S3: -96 <0.001
  Lactating(n= 2) left 45.5 (17.7) 14.5 (12.0) 8.0 (8.5) 3.0 (4.2) S0 vs S1: -68 na
S2: -82  
S3: -93  
   right 47.0 (15.6) 15.0 (11.3) 9.5 (9.2) 3.5 (4.9) S0 vs S1: -68 na
S2: -80  
S3: -93  
  Primary augmentation(n= 18) left 59.0 (21.2) 17.5 (8.4) 8.2 (5.2) 2.6 (2.3) S0 vs S1: -70 <0.001
S2: -86  
S3: -96  
   right 60.8 (21.1) 18.1 (8.7) 9.2 (6.4) 2.9 (2.7) S0 vs S1: -70 <0.001
S2: -85  
S3: -95  
  Reconstruction(n= 2-3) 1 left 72.5 (13.4) 20.5 (5.0) 10.5 (5.0) 3.0 (1.4) S0 vs S1: -72 na
S2: -86  
S3: -96  
   right 65.0 (23.6) 18.3 (4.7) 7.3 (2.5) 4.0 (2.6) S0 vs S1: -72 na
S2: -89  
S3: -94  
  Lumpecto left 27 0 0 0 S0 vs all: -100 na
my(n= 1) right 70 0 0 0 S0 vs all: -100  
  Tram flap left 53 1 0 0 S0 vs all: -98,-100 na
(n =1) right 66 2 0 0 S0 vs all: -97,-100  
  1. A) All participants; B) Subgroups. All orthoses tested were of firm density.1 One participant had a one sided (right side) implant after mastectomy. Subgroup analysis includes the participant’s measures for the right side only.
  2. AP, antero-posterior; kPa, kilopascal; ML, medio-lateral; N, Newton; n, number; na, not applicable; S0, no orthosis; S1, size-1 orthosis; S2, size-2 orthosis; S3, size-3 orthosis; vs, versus