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Table 3 Details of exercises in SRE program

From: Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise: a parallel-group randomized clinical trial evaluating relative effectiveness and harms

Type (Freq) Exercise Sets Repetitions Exercise description Progressions
Stretching (performed daily at home)
  head retraction 1 5 Seated with head in neutral position, alternate retracting head back and returning to neutral.  
cat camel 1 5 Begin with the pelvis in a neutral position, alternate between arching the back in a “C” shape forward and backward. 1: Seated
2: Hands/knees
shoulder shrug 1 1 Seated with head and neck in neutral position, raise shoulders in a cephalic direction, and release.
neck forward bend 1 1 Seated with head in neutral position, flex head forward to bring chin toward the chest.
neck side bend 1 1 Seated with head in neutral position, keep shoulders stationary, tip head to side approximating ear to shoulder. Release & repeat on other side.  
hamstring stretch 1 1 Seated with one leg straight and one leg bent, flex at the waist while keeping leg straight. Repeat on other side.  
seated hip stretch 1 1 Seated, place one ankle on the opposite knee. Use the hand to add pressure on bent knee to externally rotate the hip. Repeat on other side.  
Balance (performed daily at home)
  knee lift up to 2 up to 5 Stand next to a chair; bend one knee to lift the foot a few inches off the floor; slowly lower foot to floor. Repeat on other side. 1: Chair assisted
2: Stability trainer, chair assisted
3: Unassisted
4: Stability trainer, unassisted
stance/lunge up to 2 up to 5 Stance: Stand with feet together, step forward so heel touches the opposite foot’s toes. Return to the start position; repeat on other side. 1: Semi-tandem stance, chair assisted
2: Semi-tandem stance, unassisted
3: Stability trainer, semi-tandem stance, chair assisted
4: Stability trainer, semi-tandem stance, unassisted
5: Semi-tandem lunge, chair assisted
6: Stability trainer, semi-tandem lunge, chair assisted
7: Tandem stance, chair assisted*
8: Tandem stance, unassisted*
9: Stability trainer, tandem stance, chair assisted*
10: Stability trainer, tandem stance, unassisted*
Lunge: Begin with feet together, take an exaggerated step forward. Lower the knee of the back leg towards the ground and then rise to return to starting position with the feet together. Repeat on other side.
Strengthening (performed every other day at home)
  bird dog up to 2 up to 5 Begin on hands and knees, extend either one or two (contra lateral) extremities parallel to floor. Return to start position; repeat on other side. 1: Hands/knees leg only
2: Hands/knees, leg and arm combined
3: Stability trainer, hands/knees, leg and arm combined
push up up to 2 up to 10 From a plank position, lower the body by bending the arms, keeping the back straight. Return to start position. 1: Wall
2: Kneeling
3: Full body
abdominal curl up to 2 up to 10 Lie face up on floor with one knee bent and one leg straight; lift the shoulders off the ground and flex at the waist; release. After first set, switch bent knee. 1: Supine on floor, hands at side
2: Supine on floor, arms on chest
3: Supine on floor, hands behind head
4: Supine on floor, hands overhead
5: Stability
trainer, hands at side
6: Stability trainer, arms on chest
7: Stability trainer, hands behind head
8: Stability trainer hands overhead
resisted head retraction up to 2 up to 10 Seated with head in neutral position facing a closed door. A resistance band is looped around the head/forehead with end secured by a firmly closed door. Alternate head retraction and release. 1: Yellow Theraband®
2: Red Theraband®
3: Green Theraband®
chair squat up to 2 up to 10 Stand in front of a chair, bend knees and hips to lower body to a seated position; return to standing. 1: Two handed assist
2: Arms at sides
3: Arms crossed
4: Arms out front
5: Stability trainer, arms at sides
6: Stability trainer, arms crossed
7: Stability trainer, arms out front
  1. *Only one set is required to progress.
  2. Sets and repetitions listed are for each side, if appropriate. Progressions are introduced when the participant can complete the maximum number of sets and repetitions with proper form. Neutral position of the head implies a relaxed posture, the ears aligned with the shoulders. Neutral pelvis cues the patient to position themselves with a slight, not exaggerated, lordosis in the lumbar spine.