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Table 2 Quality assessment of four articles reporting on five studies on puberty and back pain

From: Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review

   Jansens[33](Netherlands) Jansens[33](USA) Wedderkopp[35] LeResche[34] Hulsegge[32]
1. Study sample - Was the sampling likely to be suitable to obtain a group representative of the corresponding general population? Yes (Probably) Yes (Probably) Yes (Probably) Yes (Probably) Yes (Probably)
- If participation at BL or at FU < 80%, was response bias investigated? Yes Yes Yes Yes No
- Inclusion criteria, were age groups appropriate to study the whole period of puberty? Yes Yes Yes Yes Not really
2. Data collec-tion - Data for BP and puberty were collected independently by 2 different persons or by at least 1 questionnaire? Yes No Yes No Yes
3. Puberty - Clearly defined? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
- Description of how puberty stage was determined? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
-Reference provided for validity of test? No No No Yes Yes
-Reference provided for reliability of test? Yes Yes No No No
4. Back pain - Clearly defined? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
- Description of how BP was assessed? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
- Recall period (<= 1-month)? No No Yes No No
- Was BP at BL taken into account? Yes Yes NA NA NA
5. Control for age and sex - Was the association puberty- BP controlled for age? Yes Yes Stratified analysis Yes Yes
- for sex? Yes Yes NA Stratified analysis Yes
6. Stat. analysis - Was dose-response prevalence estimated in relation to puberty stages investigated? Yes Yes Yes Yes No
- Was dose-response of frequency or severity in relation to puberty stages investigated? No No NA NA NA
- Was dose-response tested for trend? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Score (0-17)% 14/17 13/17 12/14 12/15 10/15
82% 76% 86% 80% 67%
  1. (listed by the quality score).
  2. BL = baseline, FU = follow up, BP = back pain, NA = not applicable.