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Table 3 Summary of results from four articles reporting on five studies on puberty and back pain

From: Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review

  Jansens[33] Jansens[33] Wedderkopp LeResche Hulsegge
Netherland USA [35] [34] [32]
Prevalence estimates of back pain  
(Puberty stage: Number or percentage of children with BP/Number of individuals)    Stage 1 : 52/179   
? : 15%/992 girls ? : 30.5%/1069 girls Stage 2 : 22/68 Puberty stage <2 : ?/155 ? : 3.2%/1313 girls
  Stage3 : 8/16 Puberty stage 2 to 3 : ?/?  
? : 11.1%/1004 boys ? : 22.1%/1018 boys Stage 4 : 40/76 Puberty stage > 3: ?/594 ? : 2.1%/1325 boys
  Stage 5 : 38/74  
OR obtained by logistic regression
(Dependent variable : back pain/independent variable: puberty stage)
Unadjusted OR = 1.34 * (95% CI 1.13-1.57) Unadjusted OR = 1.61* (95% CI 1.30-1.99) Unadjusted values: Not provided Boys: Unadjusted OR = 1.9* (p < 0.0001) Unadjusted values: Not provided
Adjusted OR = 1.24 * (95% CI 1.04-1.46) a Adjusted OR = 1.52* (95% CI 1.22-1.89)a Adjusted OR = 1.2* (95% CI 1.2-1.4)b Girls: Unadjusted OR OR = 2.0* (p < 0.0001) Both: Adjusted OR = 1.23 (95% CI 0.77-1.96) c
  Adjusted values not provided, however association said to have remained when controlling on age and parental education Boys: Adjusted OR = 2.86 * (95% CI 1.14-7.15) c
Girls: Adjusted OR = 1.09 (95% CI 0.65-1.84)c
Assumption of linearity fulfilled for logistic regression Yes Yes Yes Yes Not reported
  For both sexes: For both sexes: For girls only: For girls and boys: For boys only:
  Unadjusted values: Unadjusted values: Unadjusted values: Unadjusted values: Unadjusted values :
Dose-response (Odds ratios by puberty stage) Puberty stage 1 (Index) Puberty stage 1 (Index) Puberty stage 1 (Index)   
Puberty stage 2 OR = 1.34 # Puberty stage 2 OR = 1.61# Puberty stage 2 OR = 1.1 (95%CI0.6-2.0) Puberty stage girls boys  
  Puberty stage 3 OR = 1.79 # Puberty stage 3 OR = 2.59# Puberty stage 3 OR = 2.3 (95%CI0.8-6.5) 1 (Index) (index) not provided
Puberty stage 4 OR = 2.4# Puberty stage 4 OR = 4.17# Puberty stage 4 OR = 2.6 (95%CI1.5-4.7) 2 OR = 2# OR = 1.9#
Adjusted valuesa: Adjusted valuesa: Puberty stage 5 OR = 2.4 (95%CI1.4-4.3) 3 OR = 4# OR = 3.61#
  4 OR = 7.99# OR = 6.86#  
Puberty stage 1 (Index) Puberty stage 1 (Index) Adjusted valuesb: Adjusted values: Adjusted valuesc
Puberty stage 2 OR = 1.24 # Puberty stage 2 OR = 1.52 # Puberty stage 1 (Index) not provided Puberty stage 1 (Index)
Puberty stage 3 OR = 1.54 # Puberty stage 3 OR = 2.3 # Puberty stage 2 OR = 1.1 (95%CI 0.7-2.0) Puberty Stage 2 OR = 2.86#
Puberty stage 4 OR = 1.9 # Puberty stage 4 OR = 3.5 # Puberty stage 3 OR = 1.6 (95%CI 0.5-4.6) Puberty Stage 3 OR = 8.18#
Puberty stage 4 OR = 2.0 (95%CI 1.3-3.5)* Puberty Stage 4 OR = 23.4#
   Puberty stage 5 OR = 2.1 (95%CI 1.1-4.1)*  
Strength of association based on index versus last stage of puberty Puberty stage 4 Puberty stage 4 Puberty stage 5 Puberty stage 4 Puberty stage 4
Unadjusted OR = 2.4# Unadjusted OR = 4.17# Unadjusted OR = 2.4 (95%CI 1.4-4.3) Unadjusted OR = 7.99# for girls  
Adjusted OR = 1.9 # a Adjusted OR = 3.5 # Adjusted OR = 2.1 (95%CI 1.1-4.1)* b Unadjusted OR = 6.86# for boys Adjusted OR = 23.4# c
Temporality tested Positive association noted between puberty stage at baseline and BP at follow-up after adjustment for back pain at baseline Positive association noted between puberty stage at baseline and BP at follow-up after adjustment for back pain at baseline NA NA NA
  1. OR = Odds ratio.
  2. BP = Back pain.
  3. CI = confidence interval.
  4. * statistically significant.
  5. # estimations of odds ratio (comparison of each stages compared to the index value) calculated from logistic regression provided in article.
  6. & ORs not calculated for girls and both sexes together because not significant.
  7. (a) adjusted for sex and back pain.
  8. (b) adjusted for overweight and smoking/stratified by age.
  9. (c) adjusted for age and sex.