Skip to main content

Table 1 Three-Dimensional spinal manipulation load characteristics

From: Three-dimensional chiropractor-patient contact loads during side posture lumbar spinal manipulation: a pilot study

  Both Chiropractors (N = 14) Chiropractor 1 (N = 6) Chiropractor 2 (N = 8)
Fx (N) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Preload 14.6 7.1 19.4 4.9 11.1 6.5
Peak load 25.3 37.5 61.8 26.2 -2.1 10.6
Fy (N)       
Preload 4.8 9.3 7.4 9.2 2.8 9.5
Peak load -20.6 40.2 -40.4 51.7 -5.8 22.4
Fz (N)       
Preload 96.4 30.7 71.5 22.8 115.1 21.0
Peak load 335.3 71.3 382.2 37.7 300.1 71.5
FRes (N)       
Preload 98.7 29.3 75.5 20.9 116.1 21.7
Peak load 340.3 75.2 392.6 41.0 301.0 72.0
Preload duration (ms) 1966 1022 2976 524 1209 462
Thrust loading Duration(ms) 164 37 144 26 179 39
Thrust unloading duration(ms) 746 316 1046 211 521 134
Total duration(ms) 2876 1240 4166 422 1909 482
Rateof Fz thrust loading(N/s) 1577.9 733.8 2226.3 452.6 1091.6 472.3
Rate of Fz thrust unloading(N/s) -517.4 203.6 -384.5 119.9 -617.1 200.6
Rateof FRes thrust loading(N/s) 1595.1 749.8 2267.3 442.7 1090.9 475.7
Rate of FRes thrust unloading(N/s) -522.7 201.9 -394.5 121.3 -618.8 201.4
  1. Fx-Inferior to superior force Fy- Lateral force Fz-Posterior-to-anterior force FRes-Resultant force.
  2. N-Newtons ms-milliseconds N/s- Newtons per second.