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Table 4 Data from the epidemiologic literature on back pain at least once in children

From: Back pain in children surveyed with weekly text messages - a 2.5 year prospective school cohort study

  Mikkelsson et al.[[17]] Hakala et al.[[18]] Petersen et al.[[19]] Stanford et al.[[20]] Dunn et al.[[16]] Kjær et al.[[7]]
Country Finland Finland Sweden Canada USA Denmark
Design Cross sectional + follow up Cross sect. + follow up Cross sectional Longitudinal (8 yrs) Longitudinal (3 m/3 yrs) Cross sectional + follow up
Study sample Pupils from 19 primary schools Population register. All Finns born on adjacent dates in summer Randomized cluster sample of pupils Non-institutionalized civilian population Girls/boys initially 11 yrs randomly selected in GH database Primary/secondary school. 38 state schools in one municipality
Response rate 83% 77% 97% ? 49% 62%, 57%, 58%
Valid sample size 1756 62677 1121 2488 1333 479, 439, 443
Data collection Questionnaire Questionnaire Questionnaire Computer ass. Interview + Questionnaire Telephone survey + Questionnaire Interview + Questionnaire
Age group 9, 12 (mean: 9.8, 11.8) 12,14,16,18 (mean: 12.6, 14.6, 16.6, 18.6) 6-13 10-18 11-14 9,13,15 (mean: 9.7, 13.1, 15.7)
Definition of back pain Pain/ache in neck, upper back (UB), low back (LBP) Back or neck pain the past half a year Backache last 6 months Backache past 6 months Back pain a whole day or more in the past 3 months Any spinal pain:
Recall period 3 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 3 months 1 month
Prevalence estimates never/seldom BP (UB, LBP) BP + NP (12y) BP (6-13y) BP (12-13y) BP (11-14y) 78% BP (9y, 13y, 15y) 67%
Overall: monthly       33%, 28%, 48%
Frequency Weekly Weekly ≥ 1 Weekly: Weekly Low/high  
Once      10% (low prob.)  
Several/frequently/continually 12.7% (Only mentioned in the discussion section) Girls: 6-16% Boys: 4-10% Grade 0: 2% Grade 1: 3% Grade 2: 3% Grade 3: 6% Grade 4: 7.5% Grade 5: 14% Grade 6: 17% 17.6% 1,3% (high prob.)