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Table 7 Data from the epidemiologic literature on back pain in boys and girls (age included)

From: Back pain in children surveyed with weekly text messages - a 2.5 year prospective school cohort study

  Petersen et al.[[19]] Grøholt et al.[[26]] Sato et al.[[22]] Stanford et al.[[20]] Kjær et al.[[7]]
Country Sweden Nordic countries Japan Canada Denmark
Design Cross sectional Cross sectional Cross sectional Longitudinal - 8 yrs Cross sectional + follow up
Study sample Randomized cluster sample of pupils Population registries children survey Elementary and junior high school-children in Niigata City Non-institutionalized civilian population (1994-5, 1996-7, 1998-9, 2002-3) Primary/secondary school. 38 state schools in one municipality
Response rate 97% 64.5-69% 79.8% ? 62%, 57%, 58%
Valid sample size 1121 5911 (BP) 34423 2488 479, 439, 443
Data collection Questionnaire Questionnaire Questionnaire Computer ass. Interview + Questionnaire Interview + Questionnaire
Age group 6-13 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, 16-17 9-15 10-18 9, 13, 15 (mean 9.7, 13.1, 15.7)
Definition of back pain Backache the last 6 months Has the child had any of the following complaints? (BP, headache e.g.) Any LBP now Backache past 6 months Any spinal pain
Gender No gender difference Girls > boys in all pain categories 11-12y girls > boys Girls > boys No difference in overall back (spinal) pain reporting at age 9 and 13 yrs.
Age (prevalence increase) Prevalence of bachache higher from grades 4-6 than in grades 0-3 (Method change) BP + headache most prevalent in the oldest age groups compared to the youngest Increasing prevalence with grade levels until age 14 (LBP: Point prevalence) Girls 12-18 yrs > boys 12-18 yrs > 13 yrs