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Table 4 Statements of risks in the informed consent documents (ICDs) for spinal manipulation (n-11)

From: Do informed consent documents for chiropractic clinical research studies meet readability level recommendations and contain required elements: a descriptive study

Area of spinal manipulation Risk described Number of ICDs including risk
Cervical (n = 3) Mild discomfort 1
Falling from treatment table 1
Light headedness 2
Dizziness 2
Flushed feeling 1
Neck/upper back soreness or stiffness 1
Headache 1
Muscle tightness 1
Fatigue 1
Increased neck pain symptoms 1
Neck pain 1
Muscle and ligament sprain/strain 1
Injuries to the spinal discs 1
Neurologic impairment 1
Bone fracture 1
Spinal fractures 1
Stroke 2
Lumbar (n = 8) No risks or discomforts 1
Falls from the table 1
Fatigue 1
Light-headedness 1
Sweating/flushed feeling 1
Dizziness 1
Increase in current symptoms 3
Muscle/joint soreness 5
Transient discomfort/soreness in the back or lower extremities 3
Worsening of symptoms in the case of disc herniation 1
Injury to shoulder 1
Muscle and ligament sprain/strain 1
Disc injury 1
Bone fracture 4
Stroke 1
Cauda equina syndrome 3