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Table 2 Results of methodological assessment of the 49 included studies

From: Clinical examination findings as prognostic factors in low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

Author and year of publication Study participation Study attrition Prognostic factor measurement Outcome measurement Analysis/reporting of results Risk of bias assessment
Albert et al. (2012) [25] Yes Unsure Yes Yes Yes Low
Amundsen et al. (2000) [26] Unsure Partly Unsure No No High
Bendix et al. (1998) [27] Yes Partly Unsure Yes Partly Moderate
Bergquist-Ullman et al. (1977) [28] Yes Unsure Yes Yes Partly Moderate
Burton et al. (1991) [29] Yes Partly No No Partly High
Burton et al. (1995) [30] Yes Yes No Yes Partly Moderate
Campello et al. (2006) [31] No Yes Partly Yes Yes Moderate
Christiansen et al. (2010) [32] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Low
Coste et al. (1994) [33] Yes Unsure Unsure Unsure Partly High
Dwornik et al. (2007) [34] Unsure Unsure Unsure Partly No High
Enthoven et al. (2003) [35] Yes Partly Yes Yes Yes Low
Ferreira et al. (2009) [36] Partly Unsure Yes Yes Yes Moderate
Flynn et al. (2002) [37] Yes Yes Yes Partly Yes Low
Fritz et al. (2004) [40] Yes Yes Yes Partly Yes Low
Fritz et al. (2007) [38] Unsure Yes Yes Yes Yes Low
Fritz et al. (2005) [39] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Low
Gaines et al. (1999) [41] Yes Unsure Yes Partly Yes Moderate
Ghahreman et al. (2011) [42] Yes Unsure Unsure Yes Partly High
Grotle et al. (2005) [44] Unsure Yes Unsure Yes Partly Moderate
Grotle et al. (2007) [43] Unsure Yes Unsure Yes Partly Moderate
Gurcay et al. (2009) [45] Partly Yes Unsure Yes Partly Moderate
Hicks et al. (2005) [46] Unsure Yes Yes Yes Yes Low
Hildebrandt et al. (1997) [47] Partly Yes Unsure Partly Partly High
Hurri et al. (1989) [48] No Partly Unsure Yes Yes High
Indahl et al. (1998) [49] Unsure Yes Partly Unsure Partly High
Infante-Rivard et al. (1996) [50] Yes Partly No Unsure Yes High
Jamison et al. (1991) [51] Unsure No Unsure Yes No High
Karas et al. (1997) [52] Yes Partly Yes Yes Yes Low
Kool et al. (2002) [53] Unsure Yes Yes Partly Yes Moderate
Leboeuf-Yde et al. (2004) [54] Yes Partly Unsure Yes Yes Low
Long et al. (1995) [55] Yes Unsure Yes Partly Partly High
Lonnberg (2010) [56] Unsure Unsure Unsure Yes Yes High*
Luoto et al. (1998) [57] Unsure Yes No No No High
McIntosh et al. (2000) [58] Unsure Yes Unsure Yes Yes Moderate
Milhous et al. (1989) [60] No Partly No Partly No High
Michaelson et al. (2004) [59] Yes Yes Partly Yes Yes Low
Pedersen (1980) [61] Yes Yes Yes Unsure No High
Polatin et al. (1989) [62] Unsure Unsure Unsure Yes Partly High
Roland (1983) [63] Unsure Yes Yes Unsure No High
Sandström et al. (1986) [64] Yes Yes Partly Yes No High
Schiøtt-Christensen et a (1999) [65] Yes Yes Unsure Yes Yes Low**
Medium***
Seferlis et al. (2000) [66] Unsure Partly Partly Partly Yes High
Skytte et al. (2005) [67] Yes Unsure Yes Yes Partly Moderate
Sweetman et al. (1996) [68] Unsure Unsure Unsure Unsure No High
Valls et al. (2001) [29] Yes Unsure Unsure Partly Yes Moderate
Van den Hoogen et al. (1997) [70] Yes Partly Yes Yes Yes Low
Vendrig et al. (1999) [71] Yes Partly Unsure Yes No High
Vroomen et al. (2002) [72] Unsure Yes Yes Yes Yes Low
Werneke et al. (1993) [73] Yes Unsure Yes Partly Partly High
  1. *for our purpose, **for 1 + 6 months follow-up, ***for 1 year follow-up.