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Table 3 Associations between prognostic factors and outcome

From: Clinical examination findings as prognostic factors in low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

Prognostic indicator at baseline Association with poor outcome Pain Disability Return to work UHC 1 GI 2 Combination
Centralization Positive [25] a[55]a [67]a [25] a[38]a[67]a     
short-term None [67] [55][37]     
Centralization Positive [25] a [25] a[67]a [55]a [67]a   
long-term None [67][32−/−] [67][55][32−/−] [67][55][32−/−] [67]   
Peripheralization Positive [25] a [25] a     
short-term None   [38]     
Peripheralization Positive [25] a [25] a     
long-term None [32−/−] [32−/−] [32−/−]    
Palpation tone, pain, symmetry Positive       
short-term none [54] [37][54]    [72][68] [45−/−]
Palpation tone, pain, symmetry Positive   [48] b     
long-term none [54] [54] [64] [69]   
Palpation mobility Positive   [46+/+] a [37+/+] a     
short-term none [36?/-] [39][38][36?/-]    [36?/-]  
ROM3 spine Positive       [29] a
short-term None [47?/-] [37][46][38] [33] [47?/-]   [68][47?/-] [29][33]
ROM3 spine Positive [35][28] [48] b [50+/+][62+/?] a    [29]
long-term None [63?/-] [35][30] b[66] [28][31][50] [62][66][64] [69+/−]   [65][29]
FFD4 Positive      [72−/+] a [45+/−]
short-term None [47?/-] [44−/−] [47?/-]   [47?/+][68][72]  
FFD4 Positive    [49+/−]    
long-term None [35] [35][43−/−]     
Schober’s test Positive [70+/−] b      
long-term None [28]   [28] [69]   
Aberrant spinal movement Positive [46+/+] a [33+/−]     
short-term None       [33]
ROM3 of the hip Positive   [37 − +/+]     
short-term None      [68] [29]
ROM3 of the hip Positive    [62]b    [29]
long-term None [63−/−]   [31]    [29]
SI5 motion symmetry tests Positive       
short-term None   [37]     
Pain on spinal movement Positive      [68]a  
short-term None [54] [54]    [68]  
Pain on spinal movement Positive       
long-term None [54][56] [54][56]   [56]   
SI5 provocation tests Positive   [40+/+]     
short-term None   [37][46][40]     
SI5 provocation tests Positive       
long-term None [63?/-]      
Prone instability test Positive   [46+/+] a     
short-term None       
Percussion Positive       
short-term None       [65]
Percussion Positive       
long-term None       [65]
Muscle endurance Positive       
short-term None [59] [46]     
Muscle endurance Positive [35][27]   [27]    
long-term None [35][59][27] [35][27][57] [27][31]   [27]  
Muscle strength Positive       
short-term None   [46]     
Muscle strength Positive [28] [48] b [28]    
long-term None    [31]    
Neurological signs Positive [44] [44+/+] [63]   [72−/+][68] [29]
short-term None [65][51][42]   [63]   [72] [29]
Neurological signs Positive [43+/−][63?/+] [43+/−][30] b [58+/−]    [29]
long-term None [28][63?/-] [43−/−] [58][28][60][50][64] [69]   [65][29]
SLR6 Positive   [46−/+][63] [65+/−][63]   [72+/+][68] [29]
short-term None [51]   [33]   [72][26] [45−/−][29][33]
SLR6 Positive   [30] b[61]   [69+/−]   [29]
long-term None [28][35][56][70−/−][63?/-] [56][66][35] [58][28][60][66][64] [56] [26] [65]
Cross SLR6 Positive [34]      
short-term None   [38]     
Cross SLR6 Positive       
long-term None [63?/-]      
Femoral stretch Positive      [72+/+][68]  
short-term None      [72]  
Femoral stretch Positive       
long-term None    [58]    
Naffziger sign Positive       
short-term None      [72]  
Non-organic signs Positive    [73]    [29]
short-term None   [37]     [29]
Non-organic signs Positive    [52+/+][41+/?] [41+/?]   
long-term None   [30] b [53+/−][58+/−][71] [41+/?]   [29]
Functional tests Positive       
short-term None      [68]  
Functional tests Positive       [29][61]
long-term None [27] [30] b[27] [31][27][62]   [27] [29]
Leg length discrepancy Positive       [29]
short-term None       [29]
Leg length discrepancy Positive       
long-term None    [64]    
  1. Bold indicates multivariable analysis, +/+ = result of univariate analysis/result of multivariable analysis, apredictor of recovery, bdirection of association unsure, 1UHC = use of health care services or medication, 2GI = general. improvement, 3ROM = range of motion, 4FFD = fingertip to floor distance, 5SI = sacroiliac, 6SLR = straight leg raise.