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Table 1 QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Study) tool results

From: A literature review of clinical tests for lumbar instability in low back pain: validity and applicability in clinical practice

Item Fritz et al. [ 24 ] Kasai et al. [ 25 ]
1. Was the spectrum of patients representative of the patients who will receive the test in practice? Y U
2. Were selection criteria clearly described? Y N
3. Is the reference standard likely to correctly classify the target condition? Y Y
4. Is the time period between reference standard and index test short enough to the reasonably sure that the target condition did not change between the two tests? Y U
5. Did the whole sample or a random selection of the sample, receive verification using a reference standard of diagnosis? Y Y
6. Did patients receive the same reference standard regardless of the index result? Y Y
7. Was the reference standard independent of the index (i.e. The index test did not form part of the reference standard)? Y Y
8. Was the execution of the index described in sufficient detail to permit replication of the test? Y Y
9. Was the execution of the reference standard described in sufficient detail to permit its replication? Y U
10. Were the index test results interpreted without knowledge of the result of the reference standard? Y Y
11. Were the reference standard results interpreted without knowledge of the results of the index test? Y Y
12. Were the same clinical data available when test results were interpreted as would be available when the test is used in practice? Y Y
13. Were uninterpretable/intermediate test results reported? Y Y
14. Were withdrawals from the study explained? Y Y
  1. Legend: Y = yes, N = no, U = unclear.