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Table 2 QAREL application results

From: A literature review of clinical tests for lumbar instability in low back pain: validity and applicability in clinical practice

Item Hicks et al. [ 23 ] Fritz et al. [ 24 ] Schneider et al. [ 27 ] Ravenna et al. [ 26 ] Rabin et al. [ 12 ]
1. Was the test evaluated in a sample of subjects who were representative of those to whom the authors intended the results to be applied? Y Y Y Y Y
2. Was the test performed by raters who were representative of those to whom the authors intended the results to be applied? Y U Y Y Y
3. Were raters blinded to the findings of the other raters during the study? Y Y Y Y Y
4. Were raters blinded to their own prior findings of the test under evaluation? N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
5. Were raters blinded to the results of the accepted reference standard or disease status for the target disorder (or variable) being evaluated? N/A Y N/A N/A U
6. Were raters blinded to clinical information that was not intended to be provided as part of the testing procedures or study design? U U Y N N
7. Were raters blinded to additional cues that were not part of the test? U U U U U
8. Was the order of examination varied? N Y Y Y N
9. Was the stability (or theoretical stability) of the variable being measured taken into account when determining the suitability of the time-interval between repeated measures? (PIT) N (AMP) Y N N N
10. Was the test applied correctly and interpreted appropriately? Y Y Y N Y
11. Were appropriate statistical measures of agreement used? Y Y Y N U
  1. Y = yes, N = no, U = unclear, N/A = not applicable; PIT = Prone Instability Test, AMP = Aberrant Movement Pattern.