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Table 4 Results of diagnostic accuracy studies

From: A literature review of clinical tests for lumbar instability in low back pain: validity and applicability in clinical practice

Test 2x2 table Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV +LR (95% CI) -LR (95% CI)
  TP FP       
  FN TN       
PIT [23] 20 9 71.4 57.1 69.0 60.0 1.67 0.50
8 12 (0.97-2.88) (0.97-2.88)
PLE [24] 32 8 84.2 90.5 80.0 92.7 8.84 0.18
6 76 (4.51-17.34) (0.08-0.37)
AMP [23] 5 1 17.9 95.2 83.3 46.5 3.75 0.86
23 20 (0.47-29.75) (0.71-1.05)
ICS [24] 10 12 26.3 85.7 45.5 72.0 1.84 0.86
28 72 (0.87-3.89) (0.87-1.06)
PCS [24] 14 23 36.8 72.6 37.8 71.8 1.35 0.87
24 61 (0.78-2.32) (0.66-1.15)
AS [24] 7 10 18.4 88.1 41.2 70.5 1.55 0.93
31 74 (0.64-3.76) (0.78-1.1)
PST [23] 16 11 50.0 47.6 59.3 36.5 0.96 1.05
16 10 (0.56-1.63) (0.60-1.85)
  1. T: True, F: False, P: Positive, N: Negative; PPV = Positive Predictive Value; NPV = Negative Predictive Value; +LR = Positive Likelihood Ratio; −LR = Negative Likelihood Ratio; PIT = Prone Instability Test; PLE = Passive Lumbar Extension Test; AMP = Aberrant Movements Sign; ICS: Instability Catch Sign; PCS: Painful Catch Sign; AS: Apprehension Sign; PST = Posterior Shear Test.