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Table 6 Summary of results on reliability

From: A literature review of clinical tests for lumbar instability in low back pain: validity and applicability in clinical practice

Article Test Reliability Results
Hicks et al. [23] Aberrant Movement Pattern Inter-rater reliability k = 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44; 0.73)
Prone Instability Test k = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80; 0.94)
Fritz et al. [24] Aberrant Movement Pattern Inter-rater reliability k = −0.07 (95% CI: −0.45; 0.31)
Prone Instability Test k = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.59; 0.79)
Posterior Shear Test k = 0.27 (95% CI: 0.14; 0.41)
Schneider et al. [27] Prone Instability Test Inter-rater reliability k = 0.46 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.77)
k weighed = 0.58
Ravenna et al. [26] Prone Instability Test with additional guidelines Inter-rater reliability (With*) k = 0.10 (95% IC: −0.27; 0.47)
k weighed = 0.27 (95% IC: −0.08; 0.61)
(Without*) k = 0.04 (95% IC: −0.34; 0.42)
k weighed = 0.47 (95% IC: 0.15; 0.78)
Rabin et al. [12] Aberrant Movement Pattern Inter-rater reliability k = 0.64 (95% IC 0.32; 0.90)
Prone Instability Test k = 0.67 (95% IC 0.29; 1.00)
Passive Lumbar Extension test k = 0.76 (95% IC 0.46; 1.00)
Active Straight Leg Raising k = 0.53 (95% IC 0.2; 0.84)
  1. * = Additional guidelines.