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Table 1 Case definition of sprains [25]

From: The effectiveness of manual therapy for the management of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper and lower extremities: a systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration

Grade Definition
I Sprain occurs when ligamentous fibers are stretched but remain structurally intact.
II Sprain occurs when ligamentous fibers become partially torn. Physical stress reveals increased laxity with a definite end point.
IIIa Sprain occurs when a ligament is completely torn, leading to gross instability.
  1. aGrade III sprains are excluded from this review; grade I-III ankle sprains and strains were considered if a grade specific analysis was conducted or if a trial included the same distribution of grade III injuries between intervention groups