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Table 3 Summary of assessment of risk of bias for accepted randomized controlled trials based on Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria [35]

From: The effectiveness of manual therapy for the management of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper and lower extremities: a systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration

Author, Year Research Question Random-ization Conceal-ment Blinding Similarity at baseline Similarity between arms Outcome measure-ment Percent drop-outa Intention to treat Results comparable between sites
Bergman et al., 2004 [40] Y CS Y Y Nb Y Y 12 weeks (immediately post-intervention) Y CS
UC = 14 %
MT + UC = 13 %
26 weeks:
UC = 11 %
UC + MT = 9 %
52 weeks:
UC = 13 %
MT + UC = 6 %
Cook et al., 2014 [41] Y Y N Y Y CS Y Post-intervention: N CS
Manipulation: 2/38 = 5 %
Control: 4/36 = 11 %
Cleland et al., 2013 [42] Y Y Y Y Y N Y 1 month: Y CS
MTEX: 3/37 = 8 %
HEP: 2/37 = 5 %
  1. Acronyms: Y Yes, N No, CS Can’t Say, NA Not Applicable, MT Manual therapy, UC Usual Care, MTEX manual therapy and home exercise, HEP Home exercise program
  2. aPercent drop-out includes drop-outs and loss to follow-up
  3. bBaseline differences were adjusted in the analysis