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Table 2 Flexion-Extension Ratios

From: Wearing American Football helmets increases cervicocephalic kinaesthetic awareness in “elite” American Football players but not controls

   Helmet No Helmet
Controls (n = 11) range 0.75–1.39 0.61–1.15
average 1.01 ± 0.21 0.85 ± 0.20
AF Players (n = 15) range 0.57–1.62 0.59–1.30
average 1.04 ± 0.21 0.87 ± 0.18
  1. Ratios of the active cervical range of motion (ACROM) for amount of flexion compared to extension can be used as an indication of the subject’s preferred neutral point under those conditions. Both groups were measured with and without an American footballers (AF) helmet. Both AF and control groups significantly changed their flexion-extension ratio whilst wearing the helmet (p < 0.01). Data is presented as mean ± 1 standard deviation; however the range is also presented to allow greater clarity regarding the changes seen