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Table 2 Baseline data for the entire sample and the three treatment groups

From: Spinal manipulative therapy, Graston technique® and placebo for non-specific thoracic spine pain: a randomised controlled trial

Variable All (N = 143) SMT (N = 36) Graston (N = 63) Placebo (N = 44)
Age (years) 45.8 (13.7) 44.4 (13.0) 44.8 (14.3) 48.5 (13.0)
Sex (% Male) 53.2 55.6 50.2 54.6
Pain (0-10 VAS) 5.6 (2.0) 5.5 (2.0) 5.7 (2.1) 5.5 (2.0)
Disability (0-100 ODI) 28.5 (10.4) 27.2 (10.2) 29.6 (11.1) 28.1 (9.9)
Pain duration (years) 9.2 (12.0) 9.0 (16.0) 8.2 (11.0) 10.9 (9.4)
Values are mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise indicated