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Table 3 Results of the intention-to-treat analysis comparing clinical outcomes between treatment groups

From: Spinal manipulative therapy, Graston technique® and placebo for non-specific thoracic spine pain: a randomised controlled trial

  Mean (SD) for each group Adjusted mean difference between groups (95 % CI)
  Graston SMT Placebo Graston vs MT Graston vs placebo SMT vs placebo
Disability (0-100)*
Baseline 29.6 (11.0) 27.2 (10.0) 28.1 (9.8) - - -
1 week 22.6 (11.8) 22.3 (10.0) 23.7 (12.1) -0.58 (-4.7,3.6) -1.9 (-5.8,2.0) -1.3 (-5.8,2.0)
1 month 18.1 (12.0) 19.8 (11.7) 21.5 (12.3) -3.4 (-7.7, 0.9) -4.5 (-8.6, -0.4) -1.1 (-5.7, 3.6)
3 months 16.2 (13.1) 21.0 (14.3) 18.7 (15.0) -4.6 (-9.5, 0.4) -2.1 (-7.0, 2.8) 2.5 (-2.9, 7.9)
6 months 16.2 (13.1) 18.2 (14.2) 16.9 (14.1) -1.9 (-6.9, 2.9) -0.4 (-4.9, 4.2) 1.6 (-3.7, 6.9)
12 months 16.3 (13.5) 21.2 (16.0) 16.1 (16.3) -4.8 (-10.5, 0.9) -1.2 (-6.8, 4.4) 3.6 (-2.5, 9.7)
Pain intensity (0-10)
Baseline 5.7 (2.1) 5.5 (2.0) 5.5 (1.9) - - -
1 week 4.7 (1.9) 5.1 (2.0) 4.7 (1.8) -0.3 (-1.2, 0.5) 0.1 (-0.7, 0.8) 0.4 (-0.5, 1.2)
1 month 3.4 (1.9) 4.3 (2.0) 4.2 (2.4) -1.0 (-1.9, -0.2) -0.9 (-1.7, -0.1) 0.1 (-0.8, 1.0)
3 months 3.2 (2.6) 4.0 (2.2) 3.5 (2.3) -0.8 (-1.8, 0.1) -0.3 (-1.3, 0.6) 0.5 (-0.5, 1.5)
6 months 3.5 (2.5) 3.6 (2.2) 3.6 (2.5) -0.4 (-1.4, 0.7) -0.2 (-1.2, 0.8) 0.2 (-1.0, 1.3)
12 months 3.2 (2.3) 3.8 (2.4) 3.3 (2.5) -0.8 (-1.9, 0.3) -0.4 (-1.5, 0.7) 0.4 (-0.8, 1.6)
  1. *Time by treatment group interaction p = 0.24
  2. Time by treatment group interaction p = 0.58