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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Dose–response of spinal manipulation for cervicogenic headache: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
- 18 years of age and older
- History of CGH ≥ 3 months at Baseline 1, ≥5 days of CGH per month
- CGH intensity ≥3 (0–10 scale)
- Cervical spine dysfunction (cervical joint tenderness and/or restricted segmental motion)
- Clear temporal sequence linking the source of CGH to the neck: headache preceded by neck pain, stiffness, movement and/or awkward postures
- English literate
- Independent ambulation
- Other headaches within one year of enrollment (e.g. migraine occurring on >1 day per month in the last year, medication overuse, daily, cluster, temporomandibular joint dysfunction related headaches, sinus, posttraumatic, tumor and glaucoma related, occipital neuralgia, metabolic/toxic/substance abuse related).
- Spinal manipulative therapy, massage or exercise therapy for neck pain or headaches in the previous 3 months. Any other types of care by a licensed provider in the previous month for headaches or neck pain
- Contraindications to study treatments (e.g., inflammatory arthropathies, cervical instability, severe osteoporosis, vertigo, dizziness)
- Daily prescription or nonprescription pain medication; corticosteroid use in previous month
- Cancer in the past five years
- Cardiovascular comorbidities (e.g., history of stroke, transient ischemic attacks, stage 2 hypertension, taking anticoagulant medication, syncope, myocardial infarction, hemophilia)
- Neurological comorbidities (e.g., multiple sclerosis, ALS, Parkinson’s, myelopathy, seizures, cervical radiculopathy, herniated disc, thoracic outlet syndrome, brachial plexus neuropathy)
- Spinal pathology (e.g., infection, tumor, fracture, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, degenerative joint disease, stenosis)
- Involved in a research study about pain
- Active or pending medical litigation, personal injury, workers compensation; disability compensation
- Noncompliance with headache diary at baseline (<24/28 days completed); pre-randomization noncompliance
- Pregnancy, trying to get pregnant, 3 months post-partum
- Brain or cervical spine surgery in previous 5 years; trauma to head or neck requiring hospitalization in previous year
- Severe, unmanaged depression