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Table 3 Factors associated with statements inconsistent with current radiographic guidelines for LBP

From: Awareness of radiographic guidelines for low back pain: a survey of Australian chiropractors

Outcome Questions Predictor Variables
  Year of graduation New graduate Further radiographic education Technique other than diversified In-house radiographic referrals Lack of awareness or unsure of radiographic guidelines
Likely to refer for radiographs for LBP:
 New patients 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) 0.98 (0.48, 2.02) 1.62 (0.98, 2.78) 2.35 (1.46, 3.79)* 7.23 (3.86, 13.52)** 1.79 (1.11, 2.90)*
 Suspected biomechanical pathology 1.00 (0.96, 1.02) 1.66 (0.82, 3.37) 1.36 (0.80, 2.32) 1.62 (0.99, 2.68) 4.50 (2.18, 9.27)** 1.81 (1.13, 2.90)*
 Biomechanical analysis 0.99 (0.96, 1.01) 1.28 (0.62, 2.61) 1.55 (0.92, 2.62) 2.21 (1.39, 3.51)* 4.44 (2.59, 7.62)** 1.72 (1.08, 2.76)*
 Screen for contraindications 0.99 (0.96, 1.01) 1.26 (0.62, 2.54) 1.42 (0.85, 2.36) 2.30 (1.46, 3.63)* 3.21 (1.90, 5.42)** 1.08 (0.69, 1.70)
 Full spine without LBP 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.38 (0.65, 2.92) 1.42 (0.82, 2.46) 2.77 (1.72, 4.48)* 3.58 (2.09, 6.11)** 1.55 (0.95, 2.52)
Agree that LBP radiographs may be useful:
 Routinely before spinal manipulative therapy 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 0.85 (0.37, 1.96) 1.33 (0.73, 2.42) 2.70 (1.60, 4.55)* 6.26 (3.54, 11.06)** 2.14 (1.24, 3.70)*
 Biomechanical analysis 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.20 (0.54, 2.67) 2.09 (1.18, 3.71)** 2.29 (1.38, 3.78)* 5.65 (3.26, 9.79)** 1.33 (0.80, 2.21)
 Acute LBP 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) 0.45 (0.23, 0.90)* 1.28 (0.77, 2.13) 1.80 (1.13, 2.86)* 4.17 (2.28, 7.61)** 1.80 (1.14, 2.82)*
 Neurological symptoms 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.31 (0.51, 3.37) 1.22 (0.60, 2.48) 1.85 (0.91, 3.76) 2.31 (0.92, 5.80) 2.11 (1.12, 4.00)*
 Sciatica 1.00 (0.97, 1.02) 0.74 (0.37, 1.49) 1.53 (0.89, 2.63) 1.22 (0.75, 1.98) 4.99 (2.46, 10.10)** 2.35 (1.47, 3.77)*
 Confirm diagnosis and direct treatment 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) 0.73 (0.38, 1.44) 2.07 (1.24, 3.48)** 0.94 (0.59, 1.50) 4.18 (2.21, 7.92)** 1.35 (0.86, 2.11)
 Screen for contraindications 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) 1.14 (0.58, 2.26) 1.22 (0.73, 2.05) 2.12 (1.32, 3.39)* 5.47 (2.86, 10.43)** 1.77 (1.13, 2.79)*
  1. *Statistically significant (p < 0.05) with a negative association (odds ratio < 1)
  2. **Statistically significant (p < 0.05) with a positive association (odds ratio > 1)