Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement (cm and VE) for examiner determination of SSS

From: The reliability of spinal motion palpation determination of the location of the stiffest spinal site is influenced by confidence ratings: a secondary analysis of three studies

     95% LOA
N Subset Units Bias Lower limit Upper limit
Cervical spine
27 All subjects cm 0.0 −3.1 3.1
VE 0.0 −1.7 1.7
21 Both examiners confident cm −0.2 −3.1 2.7
VE −0.1 −1.7 1.5
6 ≥1 examiners not confident cm 0.7 −3.2 4.5
VE 0.4 −1.8 2.5
Thoracic spine
52 All subjects cm −0.1 −10.9 10.8
VE 0.0 −4.8 4.7
21 Both examiners confident cm 0.6 −4.8 6
VE 0.3 −2.1 2.6
31 ≥1 examiners not confident cm −0.5 −13.9 12.9
VE −0.2 −6.1 5.6
Lumbar spine
34 All subjects cm 0.5 −6.1 7.1
VE 0.1 −1.5 1.8
19 Both examiners confident cm 0.3 −5.9 6.5
VE 0.1 −1.5 1.6
15 ≥1 examiners not confident cm 0.8 −6.4 7.9
VE 0.2 −1.6 2.0
Combined dataset
113 All subject cm 0.1 −8.2 8.4
VE 0.1 −3.0 3.1
61 Both examiners confident cm 0.3 −4.7 5.2
VE 0.1 −1.7 1.9
36 1 examiner confident cm 0.9 −10.8 9.1
VE −0.3 −4.0 3.3
16 No examiners confident cm 1.90 −10.9 14.7
VE −0.7 −4.0 5.4
  1. Abbreviations: LOA limits of agreement, SD standard deviations, SE standard error, VE vertebral equivalent