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Table 2 Criteria used to define injury and overuse injuries in the 10 articles on overuse injuries of the extremities in adults

From: Association between sports type and overuse injuries of extremities in adults: a systematic review

Sports Authors Year Criteria for injury Criteria for classified injury as overuse
   Sport-related Complaint Time-loss Medical attention Repeated micro trauma No single, identifiable cause Activity exceeds tissue tolerance Gradual onset Other
Soccer Kristenson 2013 [10] X   X    X   X  
Tegnander 2008 [11] X   X    X   X  
Jacobson 2007 [12] X   X    X    
Lüthje 1996 [13] X   (X) X   X    “Pain syndrome of musculoskeletal system appearing during physical exercise without any known trauma, disease, deformity or abnormality that might have given previous symptom. The symptoms started during physical exercise and were located as a previously symptom-free region of the body. Temporary muscle pains associated with increasing training were not recorded in the study. The diagnosis of an overuse injury was made on the basis of medical history and a thorough medical examination. “
Nielsen 1989 [14] X   X       “Strains were considered to be acute overuse injuries. “
“Some of the overuse injuries (tendinitis/synovitis) occurred under unknown circumstances.”
Eirale 2013 [15] X   X   X X    
Faude 2005 [16] X   X   X     
Ekstrand 2011 [17] X   X    X   X  
Beach volleyball Bahr 2003 [18]    X or X or     X  
Triathon Andersen 2013 [19] X         “Overuse injury” is not defined anywhere but the article was included in the review because it uses this term in the title.
Total 9/10 0/10 9/10 2/10 2/10 6/10 0/10 4/10