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Table 2 The validity of twenty-six studies on the use of primary prevention in chiropractic practice

From: Primary prevention in chiropractic practice: a systematic review

Articles
1st author
Yr of publication
Country of study
If prevention studied as main topic, was there a definition/explanation (in the introduction or the method)?
(1 pt)
Were relevant questions or survey instrumenprovided?
(1 pt)
Was there an attempt to assure quality of survey instrument? DC attitudes and use Reasons for consulting Scores
Opinions to PP
-anonymous reporting/confidentiality (1 pt)
Use of PP
-anonymous reporting/confidentiality (1 pt)
Reported by DC
-actuarial reporting (1 pt)
-approx. reporting (0 pt)
Reported by patient/
guardians
-anonymous reporting/confidentiality (1 pt)
Walker (2000) [33]
USA
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR Not reported
(0 pt)
IR IR 1/3
Hawk (2001) [22]
Australia
Canada
USA
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR Not reported
(0 pt)
IR Yes
(1 pt)
2/4
Hawk (2004) [17]
USA
Yes
“public health, clinical prevention, or health promotion”
(1 pt)
No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR 4/5
McDonald (2004) [34]
Mexico
USA
Canada
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR Not reported
(0 pt)
IR IR 1/3
Mootz (2005) [38]
USA
IR Available on request
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR Actuarial reporting
(1 pt)
IR 3/3
Alcantara (2008) [23]
Several countries
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR Actuarial reporting
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
3/4
Blum (2008) [18]
Australia
Europe
USA
Yes
Wellness: Optimizing health among self-identified healthy.
Prev. Health:
1/Preventing illness among self-identified healthy
2/Preventing illness in people at risk
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
No
(0 pt)
IR IR IR Yes
(1 pt)
3/4
Malmqvist (2008) [35]
Finland
IR Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR 3/3
Alcantara (2009) [24]
Several countries
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR Actuarial reporting
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
3/4
Hestbaek (2009) [37]
Denmark
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR IR Yes 2/3
Alcantara (2010) [25]
Several countries
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR Yes
(1 pt)
Approximate reporting
(0 pt)
IR 2/4
Leach (2011) [28]
USA
Yes
Refers to ‘’Healthy people 2010”
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR 5/5
Marchand (2012) [26]
Several
European countries
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR Approximate reporting
(0 pt)
IR 1/3
French (2013) [39] Australia IR Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR Actuarial reporting
(1 pt)
IR 3/3
Stuber (2013) [19]
Canada
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR 2/3
Brown (2014) [40]
Australia
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR IR Yes
(1 pt)
2/3
McGregor (2014) [20]
Canada
IR Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR IR 3/3
Bussières (2015) [27]
Canada
IR No but very informative tables
(0,5*pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR IR 2.5/3
Blanchette (2015) [36]
Canada
IR No, but very informative tables
(0,5*pt)
No
(0 pt)
IR Not reported
(0 pt)
IR IR 0.5/3
Fikar (2015) [31]
UK
Yes
‘’Promote health and wellness”
(1 pt)
No
(0 pt)
No
(0 pt)
Probably yes
(1 pt)
Probably yes
(1 pt)
IR IR 3/5
Glithro (2015) [29]
UK
Yes
‘’Early detection of pre-cancerous lesion”
(1 pt)
No, but very informative tables
(0,5*pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR 4.5/5
Schneider (2015) [30]
USA
IR Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR IR 3/3
Allen- Unhammer (2016) [21]
Norway
(Part1 – register study)
IR IR IR IR IR Actuarial reporting (1 pt) IR 1/1
Allen- Unhammer (2016)[21]
Norway
(Part 2 – survey)
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR IR Actuarial reporting
(1 pt)
2/3
Pohlman (2016) [41]
Several Countries
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
IR IR Approximate reporting
(0 pt)
IR 1/3
Adams (2017) [32]
Australia
IR No
(0 pt)
Yes
(1 pt)
Not reported
(0 pt)
IR IR IR 1/3
  1. PP: Primary Prevention/DC: chiropractors/IR: irrelevant