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Table 2 Risk of bias across the included studies

From: Prevalence of low back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review

  Theroux et al. 2016 [16] Makino et al. 2015 [17]
Study’s target population close representation of the national population for relevant variables. High Risk High Risk
Sampling frame a true or close representation of the target population High Risk High Risk
Random selection used to select the sample or census undertaken High Risk High Risk
Likelihood of non-response bias minimal Low Risk Low Risk
Data collected directly from the subjects High Risk High Risk
Acceptable case definition used in the study High Risk High Risk
Study instrument that measured the parameter of interest shown to have reliability and validity Low Risk Low Risk
Same mode of data collection used for all subjects Low Risk Low Risk
Length of the shortest prevalence period for the parameter of interest appropriate Low Risk Low Risk
Numerator and denominator for the parameter of interest appropriate Low Risk Low Risk