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Table 6 Clinical outcomes reported and/or expected after treatment with Functional Neurological according to four sources in a scoping review

From: Unravelling functional neurology: a scoping review of theories and clinical applications in a context of chiropractic manual therapy

Sources of information Conditions Early clinical outcomes Clinical outcomes with unspecified time frame Long-term clinical outcomes
Book Chapter 19 p.332–341 Complex regional pain syndrome At 12 weeks, full recovery of function, persistence of bouts of pain   
Migraines and vertigo Less frequent migraines, resolution of vertigo   
ADHD At 12 weeks, improvement of concentration, reading ability and other academic abilities Further improvement is expected.  
Depression At 12 weeks, improvement of depressive state Further improvement is expected with continued treatment.  
Low back pain with spinal root compression At 12 weeks, pain free, but persistent episodes of numbness   
Post manipulative therapy symptoms At 12 weeks, resolution of imbalance and headaches, reduction of the other symptoms including confusion Further improvement or even resolution is expected with continued treatment.  
Articles Pedro (2005) [41] Landau-Kleffner syndrome (case report) At 12 weeks, improvement of language, auditory and motor skills   
Beck (2009) [42] Complex regional pain syndrome (case report) At 12 weeks, full recovery of function, but persistence of bouts of pain   At 1 year, functional recovery is maintained, episodes of pain are reported.
Bova (2013) [43] Cervical dystonia (case report)   Functional improvement, decrease of spasmodic torticollis  
Kuhn (2013) [44] Migraines, ADHD, OCD, Tourette’s syndrome (case report) At 19 weeks, migraines were gone, tics and, learning and behavioral capacities were improved   
Hirsh (2013) [46] ADHD, primary nocturnal enuresis, and musculoskeletal pain (case report) At 18 weeks, improvement of behavior, confidence, and posture
No more difficulty in daytime urinary control
  At 3 months, occasional bed wetting and improvements in various activities of daily living
Esposito (2013) [48] Symptoms related to traumatic brain injury (case report) At 10 weeks, improvement of balance, cognitive abilities, mood, and anxiety
Decrease of the number and severity of physical complaints
Bova (2014) [45] Parkinson’s disease (case report) At 2 months, improvement of posture, function and well-being   At 10 months, treatment is continued twice per week for maintenance care with stable results.
NB: Relapse was observed when treatment was reduced to once per week.
Bova (2014) [40] Idiopathic paresthesia (case report) At 2 weeks, symptom free after 2 visits   
Traster (2014) [47] Symptoms related to traumatic brain injury (case report) At 3 months, recovery of vibration sense, free of dysesthesia, and improvement of balance and gait   
Websites Website 1 Unspecified   Relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)  
Symptoms related to traumatic brain injury Resolution
Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and ADD / ADHD Improvement
Website 2 Unspecified   Relief of patient’s symptom(s)  
Website 3 Unspecified   Significant relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)  
Migraines, and Post-concussion symptoms Resolution
Website 4 Unspecified   Relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)  
Website 5 Unspecified   Profound relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)  
Interviews Informant 1 Most of the conditions Improvements of patient’s symptom(s), usually after 2 to 3 visits   
Vertigo “Good”, usually after 2 to 3 visits  
Tinnitus Less constant, usually after 2 to 3 visits  
Informant 2 Most of the conditions “Good”, usually after 2 to 3 weeks of treatment   
Neurodegenerative diseases, tremor disorders, high “fatigability” of the nervous system   Less constant and longer to observe
Informant 3 Reversible or “functional” conditions (e.g. vertigo, balance issues, headaches) “Good”, and potentially stable, after 3 to 4 visits   
Irreversible conditions   Results concerning some of the symptom(s) of the patient’s pathology, take longer to achieve, and stable with maintenance care.
Informant 4 Most of the conditions   Improvement, usually transitory, of some of the patient’s symptom(s)  
Any pediatric conditions (e.g. ADD, cerebral palsy), and post-stroke symptoms, and chronic musculoskeletal disorders   Results are better than those described for the other conditions in adults. For children, results are also more stable.
  1. Expected clinical outcomes are reported in italic
  2. ADD/ADHD Attention deficit disorder/Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder
  3. OCD Obsessive compulsive disorders